|Fatin Izzaidah Anuar||Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia|
|Tony Hadibarata||Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University, CDT 250, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia|
|Muryanto||Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314, Indonesia|
|Adhi Yuniarto||Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Environmental and Geo Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Didik Priyandoko||Department of Biology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jalan Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia|
|Ajeng Arum Sari||Department of Biology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jalan Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia|
The potential biosorbent of stinky bean peel (Parkia speciosa) (SBP) was investigated for azo dye Procion Red Mx-5B removal due to their accessibility, economically feasible, easy pre-treatment, and non-toxic. This study aims to determine the effect of chemically modified of the SBP, that a massive agricultural waste in Sarawak, to enhance its ability during adsorption of dye. The biosorbent used was dried, ground, and sieved through 600 µm sieve to obtain a similar average size. Impregnation with some chemicals was performed by using ZnCl2, K2CO3, H2SO4 and NaOH for 24 h. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin techniques were examined to calculate the isotherm data. The result showed that the sorption capacity of the SBP was improved by ZnCl2 modification. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Freundlich model, while the kinetic study was fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Further, it was concluded that dyes uptake by biosorbent was based mainly on the role of carboxyl and a hydroxyl group.
Biosorption; Chemical modification; Procion red; Stinky bean peel
Dyes have been progressively utilized as a part of the material in textile, leather, paper, rubber, plastics, cosmetic industries, commercial nourishment enterprises as well as pharmaceuticals since these commonly have complex aromatic bonds which are more stable and biodegradable (Gong et al., 2005; Mane et al., 2007). At present, there are more than a thousand colors are commercially manufactured by the industry, where 20% is produced in the textile industry, and 15% are released into the environment during synthesis, processing or application (Liao et al., 2013). The discharge of dye wastewaters into the environment without any treatment caused eutrophication, perturbations in aquatic life such as photosynthesis obstructed, and aesthetic unpleasant. Numerous dyes present in the industry is the azo class which extensively becomes a significant pollutant in dye effluents (Pandey et al., 2007). Azo dyes have one or more nitrogen bonds (–N=N–), sulfonic or aromatic groups which some of them have a half-life greater than 2000 h under daylight and imperviousness to biodegradation which danger for the environment (Grimes et al., 1999).
Various techniques had been applied to eliminate organic contaminants in the environment, such as coagulation/flocculation, filtration, reverse osmosis, membranes, advanced oxidation processes, and microbial degradation (Rubin & Soto, 2009; Hadibarata et al., 2011; Hadibarata et al., 2013). However, those treatments exhibit high capital, high cost and much maintenance besides multipart procedures. Inversely, biosorption is proof to be a simple technique due to the low cost of operation and simple design.
Biosorption is an alternative biotechnological process for removing organic and inorganic pollutants using natural and non-toxic sorbent. Another primary benefit of biosorption is easy to use very cheap materials as sorbents such as agriculture waste (Haghseresht & Lu, 1998; Grimes et al., 1999; Hayashi et al., 2000; Gong et al., 2008; Han et al., 2010; Han et al., 2011; Lam et al., 2017; Olufemi & Eniodunmo, 2018). Because of their accessibility, economically feasible, easy pre-treatment, and non-toxic, agricultural waste as biosorbents is increasingly used in pollution treatment.
Many techniques were implemented to improve biosorbent capability such as modification of the chemical composition of biosorbents which significantly increased the sorption capacity (Wirasnita et al., 2014). Modifications on biosorption properties were studied due to development of contact surface of biosorbent, by improving its porosity and removal capability. Additionally, the target of modification was the active functional groups on the biosorbent surface, that playing an important role for binding contaminants (Demirbas, 2008).
In this study, the chemical modification of SBP as biosorbent to remove PR solution was examined. Various parameters such as contact time, initial PR concentration and biosorbent dosage were conducted in batch studies. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were also considered to study the dye uptake onto SBP.
The present study proved that the raw SBP was potential to be used as biosorbent to remove PR from aqueous solution. The biosorption time was 12 h with 77.43% removal. Based on FT-IR analysis, the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups affords the adsorption of organic pollutants. The biosorption follows the pseudo-second-order of kinetic model with R2 of 0.995. The isotherm data indicated that Freundlich isotherm showed better correlation coefficient with R2 = 0.9993, 0.9786 and 0.9728 for 1, 3 and 5 g of biosorbent dosage. This biosorbent is valuable since they are green, economical, and easy to prepare with a simple design of biosorption technique
A part of this research was financially supported by a Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Ministry of High Education Malaysia (No. 4F465).
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