Published at : 25 Apr 2019
Volume : IJtech Vol 10, No 2 (2019)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v10i2.2137
|Abdelkader Khentout||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of 20 Août 1955 Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
|Mohamed Kezzar||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
|Lakhdar Khochemane||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of 20 Août 1955 Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
In the field of drilling there is increasing interest in topics such as degradation of drilling tools and estimation of penetration speed, as well as efforts to optimize geometrical parameters and drilling processes. The current study was based on an original experimental setup that estimates the actual operating conditions of drilling tools and proposed mathematical models with and without interactions. These models characterize the penetration speed of a widely used compact polycrystalline diamond (PDC) oil-drilling bit. The special focus of this study was on the cutter penetration bit, with the aim of investigating the influence of four operating variables weight on bit (WOB), bit rotational speed (RPM), cutting angle b, and compressive strength Cs on yield maximum penetration rate, using Taguchi’s design-of-experiment concepts. In the study, 27 experimental runs based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array were performed with signal to-noise (S/N) ratio, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analysis being used, with penetration rate as response variables. From the optimization and experimental analyses conducted, it was observed that WOB3 (160 kgf), RPM3 (152 rpm), b3 (45°), and Cs1 (640 kgf/cm2) had significant influence on penetration rate. The optimal values obtained during the study optimization using the Taguchi approach were validated by confirmation experiments.
ANOVA analysis; Drilling bit; Penetration rate; Signal-to-noise; Taguchi
Drilling plays a vital role in oil and gas exploration and production around the world. Drilling efficiency is linked to the additional costs involved in using a platform, which can reach several hundreds of thousands of dollars a day (Wang et al., 2012). One of the most important parameters in planning drilling operations and the estimation of cost is the penetration rate (ROP) (Bilgin et al., 2003), this depending on operational variables including controllable parameters, such as operational variables, bit type, diameter, weight, and rotational speed, as well as rock properties and geological conditions (Moeni et al., 2014).
Drill-bit design is one of the factors that affects ROP during drilling (Gerbaud et al., 2011), and so the drilling industry and research community carry out continuous research into drill-bit design to improve overall drilling performance and reduce drilling costs and thus to increase margins. The choice of bit depends on several factors, one of which is whether the formation to be drilled is hard, soft, medium hard or medium soft (Moeni et al., 2014).
A PDC bit is a drilling tool that uses polycrystalline diamond compact cutters to shear rock formations using a continuous scraping motion. The introduction of PDC in 1973 facilitated the development of the first drill bit that used synthetic diamonds as cutting elements (Kerr et al., 1988). Through continuous research and development over the last decade, PDC drill-bit performance has been improved by innovation in PDC wear, impact resistance, and better understanding of vibration. According to Kerr et al. (1988), there are three main design features affecting PDC drill-bit performance: the number of blades with cutters, cutter edge geometry and the diameter of cutters. In planning an efficient drilling operation, it is essential to learn how all these parameters influence the penetration rate.
In 1960, Taguchi proposed an effective statistical technique based on experimental data (Antony, 2006) and designed to involve tolerance and parameters in design (Taguchi, 1987; Taguchi, 1993). In contrast to previous experimental techniques, Taguchi's developed technique takes into consideration the effects of several factors. To enhance response quality by using only a few experimental data, the Taguchi method has been used to design an orthogonal array which includes S/N ratio, noise, and controlled factors (Phadke, 1989; Ross, 1996; Fotis et al., 2008; Venkateswarlu et al., 2010; Celik, 2010). Up until now, this method has been used for drilling-parameter optimization with considerable success (Changheon et al., 2017; Derdour et al., 2017; Rais et al., 2017; Derdour et al., 2018).
This experimental study was carried out by applying Taguchi methodology to provide complete information on all factors impacting on the performance parameters, such as cutting angle, WOB, rotation speed and compressive strength. From these experiments, it is possible to determine the drilling parameters that give a maximum penetration rate.
In this study, the Taguchi technique is used to obtain optimal drilling parameters in the drilling of different rocks under dry conditions. The experimental results were evaluated using S/N ratio, Pareto variance analysis, and regression analysis.
The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) As a result of the Taguchi experimental it was found that the interactions b×b and b×RPM were the most significant factors affecting the penetration rate, with percentage contribution of 31.55% and 12.11%, respectively; (2) The optimum control factors for penetration rate b3WOB3RPM3Cs1 were b3 = 45°, WOB3 = 160 kgf, RPM3 = 152 rpm, and Cs1 = 640 kgf/cm2; (3) ANOVA Pareto analysis showed that WOB and Cs have positive effects on penetration rate; (4) The quadratic mathematical model is developed with a confidence interval of 96.35 for the prediction of penetration rate (ROP).
In this study, the Taguchi technique was successfully applied both to determining the optimal combinations of drilling parameters and also to minimize costs and the number of drilling experiments.
Antony, J., 2006. Taguchi or Classical Design of Experiments: A Perspective from a Practitioner. Sensor Review, Volume 26, pp. 227–230
Bilgin, A., Yalçin, E., Kutbay, H.G., Kilinc, M., 2003. Nutrient Concentrations and Biomass in Lake Vegetation and Nutrient Limitation in Lakes of Northern Black Sea Region of Turkey. Ekológia (Bratislava), Volume 22(3), pp. 257–268
Celik, L., 2010. Monitoring Vibration in Grinding Process and Regression Modeling of Surface Roughness. M.S. Master’s Thesis, Selçuk University, Turkey
Cetin, M.H., Ozcelik, B., Kuram, E., Demirbas, E., 2011. Evaluation of Vegetable Based Cutting Fluids with Extreme Pressure and Cutting Parameters in Turning of AISI 304L by Taguchi Method. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 19(17-18), pp. 2049–2056
Changheon, S., Jintai, C., Kim, J.H., Oh, J.Y., 2017. Design Optimization of a Drifter using the Taguchi Method for Efficient Percussion Drilling. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Volume 31(4), pp. 1797–1803
Derdour, F., Kezzar, M., Bennis, O., Khochemane, L., 2017. The Optimization of the Operational Parameters of a Rotary Percussive Drilling Machine using the Taguchi Method. World Journal of Engineering, Volume 15(3), pp. 62–69
Derdour, F., Kezzar, M., Khochemane, L., 2018. Optimization of Penetration Rate in Rotary Percussive Drilling using Two Techniques: Taguchi Analysis and Response Surface Methodology (RMS). Powder Technology Journal, Volume 339, pp. 846–853
Fotis, S., Besseris, G., Alafodimos, K., 2008. Application of Taguchi’s Experimental Design Methodology for Product Optimization in Food Engineering Mixtures. Proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference (ERA-3), Aegina, Greece
Gerbaud, L., Menand, S., Sellami, H., 2011. PDC Bits: All Comes from the Cutter Rock Interaction In: IADC/SPE Drilling Conference. Miami, Florida, USA
Hamdan, A., Sarhan, A.A.D., Hamdi, M., 2012. An Optimization Method of the Machining Parameters in High-speed Machining of Stainless Steel using Coated Carbide Tool for Best Surface Finish. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Volume 58(1-4), pp. 81–91
Kang, J., Hadfield, M., 2015. Parameter Optimization by Taguchi Methods for Finishing Advanced Ceramic Balls using a Novel Eccentric Lapping Machine. Proceeding Institution Mechanical Engineers, Volume 215 (B), pp. 69–78
Kerr, C.J., 1988. PDC Drill Bit Design and Field Application Evolution. Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 40(3), pp. 327–332
Khochemane, L., 1990. Augmentation de l’Efficacité Technique d’Utilisation des Machines de Forage Rotatif a Taillant Coupant. Master’s Thesis, Université d’Annaba, Annaba, Algeria
Moeni, M.J.A., Shaabani. E., Milad, R., 2014. Experimental Evaluation of Hardness Models by Drillability Tests for Carbonate Rocks. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 113, pp. 104–108
Montgomery, D.C., 2001. Design and Analysis of Experiments. 8th Edition, Arizona State University
Periyanan, P.R., Natarajan, U., Yang, S.H., 2011. A Study on the Machining Parameters Optimization of Micro-end Milling Process. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Volume 3, pp. 237–246
Phadke, M.S., 1989. Quality Engineering using Robust Design. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Rais, K., Kara, M., Gadri, L., Hadji, R., Khochman, L., 2017. Original Approach for the Drilling Process Optimization in Open Cast Mines; Case Study of Kef Essenoun Open Pit Mine Northeast of Algeria. Mining Science, Volume 24, pp. 147–159
Ross, P.J., 1996. Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering: Loss Function, Orthogonal Experiments, Parameter and Tolerance Design. 2nd Edition, New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Montgomery, D.C., 2001. Design and Analysis of Experiments. Wiley, Singapore
Shafee, S., Naik, B.B., Sammaiah, K., Mohinoddin, M., 2014. RSW Process Parameters Optimization by Taguchi Method. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp. 46–54
Taguchi, G., 1987. System of Experimental Design. Unipub/Kraus International Publication, The University of Michigan, Michigan, United State of America
Taguchi, G., 1993. Taguchi on Robust Technology Development-Bringing Quality Engineering Upstream. ASME Press, New York
Taguchi, G., 1993. Taguchi on Robust Technology Development Methods. ASME Press, New York, pp. 1–40
Tetteh, E., Amano, K.O.A., Denis, A.S., Armah, E., 2018. Response Surface Optimisation of Biogas Potential in Codigestion of Miscanthus Fuscus and Cow Dung. International Journal of Technology, Volume (9)5, pp. 944–954
Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., Sivasamy, D.B., 2018. Taguchi-Grey Relation Based Multi-response Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters with Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel. International Journal of Technology, Volume (9)1, pp. 68–77
Venkateswarlu, G., Davidson, M.J., Tagore, G.R.N., 2010. Influence of Process Parameters on the Cup Drawing of Aluminium 7075 Sheet. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Volume 2, pp. 41–49
Wang, J.P, Gu, D., Yu, Z., Tan, C., Zhou, L., 2012. A Framework for 3D Model Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering. Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 63(4), pp. 1189–1200
Wang, J.P., Chen, Y.Z., Ge, X.W., Yu, H.Q., 2007. Optimization of Coagulation-Flocculation Process for a Paper Recycling Wastewater Treatment using Response Surface Methodology. Colloids and Surfaces A: physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 302(1-3), pp. 204–210