|Abdelkader Khentout||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of 20 Août 1955 Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
|Mohamed Kezzar||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
|Lakhdar Khochemane||Mechanical Engineering Department, University of 20 Août 1955 Skikda, El Hadaiek Road, B. O. 26, 21000 Skikda, Algeria|
In the field of drilling there is increasing interest in topics such as degradation of drilling tools and estimation of penetration speed, as well as efforts to optimize geometrical parameters and drilling processes. The current study was based on an original experimental setup that estimates the actual operating conditions of drilling tools and proposed mathematical models with and without interactions. These models characterize the penetration speed of a widely used compact polycrystalline diamond (PDC) oil-drilling bit. The special focus of this study was on the cutter penetration bit, with the aim of investigating the influence of four operating variables weight on bit (WOB), bit rotational speed (RPM), cutting angle b, and compressive strength Cs on yield maximum penetration rate, using Taguchi’s design-of-experiment concepts. In the study, 27 experimental runs based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array were performed with signal to-noise (S/N) ratio, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analysis being used, with penetration rate as response variables. From the optimization and experimental analyses conducted, it was observed that WOB3 (160 kgf), RPM3 (152 rpm), b3 (45°), and Cs1 (640 kgf/cm2) had significant influence on penetration rate. The optimal values obtained during the study optimization using the Taguchi approach were validated by confirmation experiments.
ANOVA analysis; Drilling bit; Penetration rate; Signal-to-noise; Taguchi
Drilling plays a vital role in oil and gas exploration and production around the world. Drilling efficiency is linked to the additional costs involved in using a platform, which can reach several hundreds of thousands of dollars a day (Wang et al., 2012). One of the most important parameters in planning drilling operations and the estimation of cost is the penetration rate (ROP) (Bilgin et al., 2003), this depending on operational variables including controllable parameters, such as operational variables, bit type, diameter, weight, and rotational speed, as well as rock properties and geological conditions (Moeni et al., 2014).
Drill-bit design is one of the factors that affects ROP during drilling (Gerbaud et al., 2011), and so the drilling industry and research community carry out continuous research into drill-bit design to improve overall drilling performance and reduce drilling costs and thus to increase margins. The choice of bit depends on several factors, one of which is whether the formation to be drilled is hard, soft, medium hard or medium soft (Moeni et al., 2014).
A PDC bit is a drilling tool that uses polycrystalline diamond compact cutters to shear rock formations using a continuous scraping motion. The introduction of PDC in 1973 facilitated the development of the first drill bit that used synthetic diamonds as cutting elements (Kerr et al., 1988). Through continuous research and development over the last decade, PDC drill-bit performance has been improved by innovation in PDC wear, impact resistance, and better understanding of vibration. According to Kerr et al. (1988), there are three main design features affecting PDC drill-bit performance: the number of blades with cutters, cutter edge geometry and the diameter of cutters. In planning an efficient drilling operation, it is essential to learn how all these parameters influence the penetration rate.
In 1960, Taguchi proposed an effective statistical technique based on experimental data (Antony, 2006) and designed to involve tolerance and parameters in design (Taguchi, 1987; Taguchi, 1993). In contrast to previous experimental techniques, Taguchi's developed technique takes into consideration the effects of several factors. To enhance response quality by using only a few experimental data, the Taguchi method has been used to design an orthogonal array which includes S/N ratio, noise, and controlled factors (Phadke, 1989; Ross, 1996; Fotis et al., 2008; Venkateswarlu et al., 2010; Celik, 2010). Up until now, this method has been used for drilling-parameter optimization with considerable success (Changheon et al., 2017; Derdour et al., 2017; Rais et al., 2017; Derdour et al., 2018).
This experimental study was carried out by applying Taguchi methodology to provide complete information on all factors impacting on the performance parameters, such as cutting angle, WOB, rotation speed and compressive strength. From these experiments, it is possible to determine the drilling parameters that give a maximum penetration rate.
In this study, the Taguchi technique is used to obtain optimal drilling parameters in the drilling of different rocks under dry conditions. The experimental results were evaluated using S/N ratio, Pareto variance analysis, and regression analysis.
The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) As a result of the Taguchi experimental it was found that the interactions b×b and b×RPM were the most significant factors affecting the penetration rate, with percentage contribution of 31.55% and 12.11%, respectively; (2) The optimum control factors for penetration rate b3WOB3RPM3Cs1 were b3 = 45°, WOB3 = 160 kgf, RPM3 = 152 rpm, and Cs1 = 640 kgf/cm2; (3) ANOVA Pareto analysis showed that WOB and Cs have positive effects on penetration rate; (4) The quadratic mathematical model is developed with a confidence interval of 96.35 for the prediction of penetration rate (ROP).
In this study, the Taguchi technique was successfully applied both to determining the optimal combinations of drilling parameters and also to minimize costs and the number of drilling experiments.
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