• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 6, No 6 (2015)

Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand

Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand

Title: Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand
Toto Rusianto, M.Waziz Wildan, Kamsul Abraha, Kusmono

Corresponding email:

Published at : 30 Dec 2015
Volume : IJtech Vol 6, No 6 (2015)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v6i6.1572

Cite this article as:

Rusianto, T., Wildan, M., Abraha, K., Kusmono, 2015. Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand. International Journal of Technology. Volume 6(6), pp. 1017-1024

Toto Rusianto Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Sciences and Technology AKPRIND Yogyakarta, Jl. Kalisahak No. 28 Kompleks Balapan, Yogyakarta 55222, Indonesia
M.Waziz Wildan Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No.2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Kamsul Abraha Department of Physic, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Sekip Utara Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Kusmono Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No.2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand

Ceramic magnets with the chemical composition of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) were obtained through the synthesis of magnetite powder from iron sand taken from the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. The iron sand was dissolved and then synthesized to produce magnetite powder. Subsequently, the magnetite powder was oxidized at temperatures of 700, 900, and 1100°C for five hours to produce hematite. The un-oxidized magnetite and the magnetite which was oxidized at the different temperatures were each mixed with barium carbonate, respectively. The mixtures were then calcined at 1100°C for two hours. The calcined products were compacted and then sintered at 1100°C for one hour to produce sintered ceramic magnets. X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the ceramic magnets. The results showed the magnetite that was directly calcined, compacted, and sintered had a BaFe12O19 phase and also had the presence of a Fe2O3 phase with a BH(max) of 0.26 MGOe, Hc of 1.27 kOe, and Ms of 31.421 emu/g. The sintered ceramic magnet which was initially oxidized at a temperature of 900°C had a BaFe12O19 phase with a BH(max) of 0.78 MGOe, Hc of 1.95 kOe, and Ms of 46.970 emu/g. These results indicate satisfactory results as a permanent magnet. Thus, the iron sand from the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta in Indonesia has potential for the production of ceramic permanent magnets.

Barium hexaferrite, Ceramic magnets, Hematite, Iron sand, Magnetite


Chirita, M., Grozescu, I., 2009. Fe2O3 Nanoparticles, Physical Properties and their Photochemical and Photoelectrochemical Applications. Chemical Bulletin Politehnica University Timisoara, Volume 54, pp. 1–8

Choi, J.W., Sur, J.C., Lim, J.T., Kim, C.M., Kim, C.S., 2012. Mössbauer Study of the Dynamics in BaFe12O19 Single Crystals. Journal of Magnetics, Volume 17(1), pp. 6–8

Faraji, M., Yamini, Y., Rezaee, M., 2010. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Stabilization, Functionalization, Characterization, and Applications. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, Volume 7, pp. 1–37

Janasi, S.R., Emura, M., Landgraf, F.J.G., Rodrigues, D., 2002. The Effects of Synthesis Variables on the Magnetic Properties of Coprecipitated Barium Ferrite Powders. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 238, pp.168–172

Mastuki., Malik A.B., Darminto, D., 2012. Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Ferrite using Iron Sand and Limestone (in Indonesian: Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Kalsium Ferit Menggunakan Pasir Besi dan Batu Kapur). Jurnal Sains dan Seni ITS, Volume 1, pp. B76–80

Nowosielski R., Babilas, R., Wrona, J., 2007. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Commercial Barium Ferrite Powders. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Volume 20, pp. 307–310

Nowosielski, R., Babilas, R., Dercz, G., Paj, L., Wrona, J., 2007. Structure and Properties of Barium Ferrite Powders Prepared by Milling and Annealing. Journal Archives of Materials Science and Engineering International Science, Volume 28, pp. 735–742

Rashad, M.M., Ibrahim, I.A., 2011. A Novel Approach for Synthesis of M-type Hexaferrites Nanopowders via the Co-Precipitation Method. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Volume 22, pp.1796–1803

Rusianto, T., Wildan, M.W., Abraha, K., Kusmono, 2012. The Potential of Iron Sand from the Coast South of Bantul Yogyakarta as Raw Ceramic Magnet Materials. Jurnal Teknologi, Volume 5, pp. 62–69

Sardjono, P., Kurniawan, C., Sebayang, P., Muljadi, 2012. Applications Permanent Magnet in Indonesia: Market and Development of Permanent Magnet Materials, (in Indonesian: Aplikasi Magnet Permanen di Indonesia: Data Pasar dan Pengembangan Material Magnet). Conference Nasional Ilmu Pengetahuan Teknik, Bandung, 28–29 November, 2012

?tefan, I., Chiriac, R., Nicolicescu, C., Ciobanu, M., 2011. Research on Synthesis of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Processed By Mechanical Alloying. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Volume 13, pp. 883–886