• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 10, No 2 (2019)

The Building Informatics Approach to Modelling Construction Quality Assurance Parameters to Prevent Structural Collapse of Building

The Building Informatics Approach to Modelling Construction Quality Assurance Parameters to Prevent Structural Collapse of Building

Title: The Building Informatics Approach to Modelling Construction Quality Assurance Parameters to Prevent Structural Collapse of Building
Amusan Lekan, Osinowo Samuel, Osawaru Faith, Awotinde Ladi, Adelakun Adegbenjo, Nkolika J Peter

Corresponding email:

Cite this article as:
Lekan, A., Samuel, O., Faith, O., Ladi, A., Adegbenjo, A., Peter, N.J., 2019. The Building Informatics Approach to Modelling Construction Quality Assurance Parameters to Prevent Structural Collapse of Building. International Journal of Technology. Volume 10(2), pp. 386-393

Amusan Lekan Building Technology Department, Covenant University.PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Osinowo Samuel Building Technology Department, Covenant University.PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Osawaru Faith Building Technology Department, Covenant University.PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Awotinde Ladi Building Technology Department, Covenant University.PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Adelakun Adegbenjo Building Technology Department, Osun State Polytechnic, Osun State, Nigeria
Nkolika J Peter Building Technology Department, Covenant University.PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Email to Corresponding Author

The Building Informatics Approach to Modelling Construction Quality Assurance Parameters to Prevent Structural Collapse of Building

Building collapses have become a global phenomenon and continue to occur unabated, with properties and lives being lost on a daily basis all over the world.  This study addresses important issues that have been identified to be the major causes of the problem of building collapses. The study aims to develop parameters that could be used to assure quality processes in building construction using building informatics, with the intention to prevent building structure collapse on construction sites.  In order to achieve this, a random survey technique was used based on the purposive method, in the form of a structured questionnaire distributed to 100 respondents. 100 structured questionnaires, designed using a Likert scale from 1 to 5, were employed in the data collection. The random sampling technique was used for the sample selection. The data collected were analysed using a relative agreement index and subjected to factor rotation, from which factors with high eigenvalues were extracted and used to create a model aimed at supplying information on building collapse prevention. The study reveals that the construction industry is filled with many unqualified personnel, poor supervision; non-compliance with designs (i.e. a structural issue) as a result of the addition of under designed or over designed components which can cause excessive loading; lack of regard for environmental issues; inappropriate planning of construction activities; poor maintenance; and, most importantly, the use of inferior materials in other to save costs, All these issues affect the construction industry and contribute to building failure.

Business entity; Collapse; Government; Information; Intervention; Model


Buildings are the most critical factor for the survival, shelter and wellbeing of people, and for the social, economic, cultural and environmental milieu in which most human activities are undertaken. However, there have been innumerable cases of building collapses, whose history could be traced back to the time of the building of the Tower of Babel, which collapsed on account of God. Various antecedents in the Babylonian Kingdom after this incident led to the promulgation of building regulations in 14BC by King Hammurabbi, an Emperor in the kingdom. According to Akinpelu (2002), buildings can be defined as permanent or temporary structures enclosed within exterior walls and a roof, and including all their attached equipment and fixtures that cannot be removed without cutting into the ceiling floors or walls (Agwu, 2014; Amusan et al., 2018).

Building information is a system which provides information, as well as knowledge and data, that can be derived from data which represent values and are attributed to parameters, and knowledge which signifies understanding in the field of building construction, maintenance and use. It also contributes to residential construction training and consultation programs that use a building science-based systems approach to help clients build better buildings which are safe, durable, healthy, comfortable and efficient, and which are better for the environment and the economy. According to Douglas (2002) the intervention approach involves using selected strategies to direct the process of intervention, based on the desired outcomes, data evaluation and evidence, which can serve to promote health, establish or restore skills and functions, maintain the existing status, introducing compensation strategies or methods.

Building collapse can simply be defined as a total or partial/progressive failure of one or more components of a building, leading to the inability to perform its principal functions of comfort, satisfaction, safety and stability. Building collapse occurs due to two major reasons: the cosmetic/additional reason, which is the addition of elements which were not formally planned for, thereby preventing the structure from being able to support these added components;  and the structural or subtraction reason, which includes reductions in or omission of  constituents in the structure, thereby making it unable to fulfil its appropriate functions or to be structurally instable  (Oloyede et al., 2010).  This study is designed to analyze the various causes of building collapse, which have been proven to be the result of departures from the “as built”/expected state to an inferior one, leading to tragic situations and providing an explanatory approach with various preventive measures to prevent continuing occurrence of building collapse in Nigeria. For example, an alarming number of 130 building collapses with a death toll of 250 people took place between 1999 and 2009 in Lagos alone.


From the analysis presented in the study, it has been established that professional qualification can lead to better performance on project sites, and that for professionals to be effective in preventing building collapse, minimum professional requirements are necessary; for example, a diploma in a construction-related discipline. Moreover, to ascertain material quality, non-destructive testing of construction components can be used to ensure the required quality and for improvements to be made. Similarly, excessive changes in the use of buildings could result in a reduction in the strength and stability of a structure, and therefore adding more structural components to cater for changes in use could help to prevent structural failures. The model presented could assist in safeguarding against building collapse if used during construction work with regard to issues that relate to the determination of the quality of materials, construction design and operation processes. 


The author is grateful to the management of Covenant University for the sponsorship of this publication and for financial and moral support. 


Agwu, M.O., 2014. Perception Survey of Poor Construction Supervision and Building Failures in Six Major Cities in Nigeria. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, Volume 4(4), pp. 456–472

Akinpelu, J.A., 2002. The Need for Code of Conduct, Building Regulations and By-laws for the Industry in Nigeria. The Professional Builder, Nigeria Institute of Building, Volume 2(1), pp. 11–14

Alexander, S., Lewis A.A., 2018. The Challenge of Reducing Incidence of Building Collapse in Ghana: Analyzing the Perspective of Building Inspection in Kumasi. SAGE Publication, Volume 8(2), pp. 6–10

Alianto, B., Astari, N., Nareshwara, D., Nugroho, Y.S., 2017. Modeling of Smoke Control in Underground Parking-garage Fires. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1296–1305

Amusan L.M., Ayo C.K., Adeyemi, E., Joshua, O., Raphael, O.A., 2018. Data on Expert System-Econometric Entropy Informatics Model for Adjudicating Residential Building Project Costs. Data in Brief, Volume 20, pp. 1721–1729

Anumba, C.J., Marino, B., Gottfried, A., Egbu. C., 2004. Health and Safety in Refurbishment Involving Demolition and Structural Instability. Health and Safety Executive Research Report 204, Bootle, Merseyside, England

Anumba, C., Egbu, C., Mukesh., 2006. Avoiding Structural Collapses in Refurbishment: A Decision     Support System. Health and Safety Executive Research Report 463, Bootle, Merseyside, England, pp. 1–99

Anyanwu, C.I., 2013. Project Management and the Project Manager; A Strategy for Addressing the Problem of Building and Infrastructural Collapse in Nigeria. Scientific Research Journal (SCIRJ), Volume 1(3), pp. 59–67

Ayeni, D., Adedeji, Y.M.D., 2015. Strategies for Mitigating Building Collapse in Nigeria: Roles of Architect and Other Stakeholders in the Building Industry. Civil and Environmental Research Journal, Volume 7(8), pp. 140–148

Ayininuola, G.M., Olalusi, O.O., 2004. Assessment of Building Failures in Nigeria: Lagos and Ibadan Case Study. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series, Volume 5(1), pp. 73–78

Baby, B., Jebadurai, D.S., 2018. Implementation of Lean Principles to Improve the Operations of a Sales Warehouse in the Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(1), pp. 46–54

Douglas, J., 2002.  Building Adaptation. Butterworth Heineman, Oxford

Ebehikhalu, N.O., Dawam, P., 2014. Spatial Analysis of Building Collapse in Nigeria. Study of the Causes and Problems. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Volume 5(25), pp. 95–107    

Ede, A.N., 2010. Building Collapse in Nigeria: The Trend of Casualties in the Last Decade (2000-2010). International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, IJCEE-IJENS, Volume 10(6), pp. 32–36

Ezeagu, C.A., Udebunu, J.N., Obiorah, S.M.O., 2014. Destructive and Non-destructive Assessment of Collapsed Structures in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), Volume 12(1), pp. 170–186

Folagbade, S.O. 1997. Structural Failures in Domestic Buildings in Nigeria: Causes and Remedies. S.A. Amole (ed.) In: Proceedings of a National Symposium on the House in Nigeria

Hollis, M.J.B.A, 2006. Analysis of Building Collapse: An Examination of Investigation. Journal of Building appraisal, Volume 2(3), pp. 246–259

Lekan, A.M., Owolabi, J.D., Tunji-Olayeni, P., Ogunde, A., 2017. Multi-parameter Optimization of Cost Entropy for Reinforced Concrete Office Building Projects using Ant Colony Optimization.  Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 12(19), pp. 5018–5023

Leyendecker, E.V., Pattal, S.G., 1973. Another Look at Building Collapse at Bailey’s. NBS Building Science. Volume 94, pp. 6–10

Mohammadi, M., Mukhtar, M., 2018. Comparison of Supply Chain Process Models based on Service-oriented Architecture. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(1), pp. 35–45

NBIMS, 2010. National Building Information Modeling Standard. Available Online at http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/NBIMSv1_p1.pdf.23/11/2018

Nduka, D.O., Amusan, L.M., Akinbile, B., Owolabi, J.D., 2018. Environmental Physical Quantities Impact on Emergence of Sick Building Syndrome on Users of Public Buildings in LAGOS, Nigeria.  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), Volume 9(10), pp. 980–990

Ogunsemi, D.R., 2002. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention and Remedies. The Nigerian Institute of Building Ondo, pp 38–82

Oloyede S.A., Omoogun C.B., Akinjare O.A., 2010. Confronting the Causes of Incessant Building Collapse in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 3(3), pp. 127–132

Ozaki, R., 2003. Customer–focused Approaches to Innovation in House Building. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, Volume 21, pp. 557–564