Published at : 27 Apr 2018
Volume : IJtech Vol 9, No 2 (2018)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v9i2.1139
Wijayanti, D.F., Suwartha, N., Priadi, C.R., 2018. Implementation of Lean Principles to Improve the Operations of a Sales Warehouse in the Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(2), pp.267-274
|Dwita Fitriani Wijayanti||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Departement of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
|Nyoman Suwartha||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
|Cindy Rianti Priadi||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
Anaerobic digestion (AD); Fat oil and grease (FOG); Food waste; Waste management
Solid waste is any waste product arising from the activities of humans and animals. It is normally in solid form and disposed of when it is not wated for reuse; it contains both organic and inorganic waste components (Tchobanoglous, 1993). The average level of waste generation in 23 developing countries is about 0.77 kg/person/day (Troschinetz & Mihelcic, 2009). This high rate of waste generation has great potential for reuse or recycling at source in order to reduce the volume of final disposal into landfill. One of the waste fraction that can be reused as compost or energy is organic waste (food/kitchen waste).
In general, solid waste in Indonesia has a high organic content of about 60.5?80% of the total waste generated (Damanhuri & Padmi, 2010; Aprilia et al., 2013). It is derived from municipal food waste, which has characteristics of high nitrogen and fat concentration, high pH and low humidity, which cause problems for its application in waste processing technology (Zarkadas et al., 2015). Moreover, domestic waste in Indonesia has a high organic content, which makes it suitable for anaerobic conditions with an organic loading rate (OLR) of around 3.2-32 kg COD/m3day (Metcalf & Eddy, 2014), and pH values ranging from 6.5?8.2 (Zhai et al., 2015); it would therefore be more effective to treat domestic waste with an anaerobic system.
Food waste degrades well and forms biogas due to optimum nutrition, temperature, pH and anaerobic conditions (Gomez et al., 2006). One of the widely used technologies for processing domestic waste is anaerobic digestion (AD). The main characteristic of AD is that it is specifically used to convert waste to energy from various biodegradable sources of organic solid waste. The AD process contributes efficiently to reducing waste and waste production (Metcalf & Eddy, 2014).
The performance of the dry anaerobic digestion food waste reactor had an average temperature of 28.38oC (mesophilic), and average pH of 6.5±0.06. The input of food waste substrate had a COD value of 218.98±9.9 g/L, which decreased at output to about 79.7±5.50 g/L. High COD concentrations indicate that the substrate used has the potential to be treated using an AD reactor. The addition of FOG waste to the dry AD reactor noticeably maintained average pH, although it was not significantly different in the first scenario, at about 6.3±0.03. In addition, the value of COD removal due to the addition of FOG waste was not significantly different, at about 88.4%. The average COD value at the inlet was higher than at the outlet during the addition of FOG waste, at about 230±1.4 g/L and 104±7.7 g/L respectively. The average VSD value in the first scenario was smaller than in the second, at about 77.6±1.46%, while the highest VSD was found in the second scenario, at about 89.3±1.55%. In addition, the COD removal of gas formation was found to be inversely proportional to biogas production. The AD operation in dry conditions with TS content was found to be greater than 15%. In this study, the addition of FOG waste did not produce any significant increase in biogas production at the initial stage, but at the end of the fourth day significant differences (according to the t-test statistic of p<0.05) were shown. This might have been caused by the fact that FOG waste has the property to behave as an inhibitor.
The authors would like
to thank the Directorate Research and Community Service Universitas Indonesia
for providing the International Indexed Publication Grants for Students’ Final Project
(Hibah PITTA) No. 824/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017. We would also like to thank M. Irpan
Sejati Tassakka for the valuable discussion and Septiana Kurnianingsih and
Ismail for the collaboration in feedstock loading.
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