• Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
  • Industrial Engineering

Development of Stakeholder Roles in Supporting Material Value Conservation of Plastic Packaging using Brain-Writing and Interpretive Process

Djoko Sihono Gabriel, Albertus Wahyu Anindityo


Cite this article as:
Gabriel, D.S., Anindityo, A.W., 2017. Development of Stakeholder Roles in Supporting Material Value Conservation of Plastic Packaging using Brain-Writing and Interpretive Process. International Journal of Technology. Volume 8(7), pp. 1361-1370
197
Downloads
Djoko Sihono Gabriel - Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Indonesia
- Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia
Albertus Wahyu Anindityo Universitas Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

According to the material-value-conservation paradigm, all material should not be considered to be marginal material, but rather to be valuable resource of which its value should be conserved. Degradation of material value may be prevented by designing for material value conservation that will support easier and faster processes for mechanical recycling; this will produce better quality of product and improve its financial viability. Therefore, it supports resource conservation schemes for plastic materials, reduces material waste, and also promotes a new method of environmental protection. A material value conservation implementation needs appropriate and strategic stakeholder roles in order to optimize the line of sight among stakeholders. Brain-writing and interpretive-process techniques of analysis were implemented in this research by interviewing competent resource persons representing every category of stakeholder (including government institutions, such as the regulator and law-enforcement agencies; plastic-packaging producers; plastic-packaging purchasers; plastic-waste collectors, and plastic recyclers), and then analyzing their responses to determine the appropriate strategic roles. Results of the two methods suggest a list of stakeholders with their strategic roles being to support the material-value-conservation aims in the context of quality and value of plastic-waste improvements, as well as increasing the quantity of waste accepted by plastic recyclers. Stakeholder roles provided valuable information and directions for implementing management of plastic materials and plastic packaging products, as well as its post-consumer materials as valuable waste. The new paradigm, which is supported by the appropriate roles of stakeholders will have a broader impact and provide more benefits through optimizing plastic-waste utilization, especially for regions with high density of people and high consumption rate of plastic packaging products.

Brain-writing; Interpretive process; Material value conservation; Mechanical recycling; Plastic packaging; Stakeholder role

Conclusion

This research has revealed the stakeholders related to the material-value-conservation practices for plastic packaging, and their roles in supporting the implementation of these practices in a context of mechanical recycling. These results suggest a new way of understanding who supports material-value-conservation practice, and how they support those practices, particularly in the design and implementation processes for plastic packaging. A brain-writing activity was conducted followed by a shift towards an interpretive understanding, which proposed a new set of activities that are recommended for the promotion of material value conservation in various institutions and in households, and in an inter-organizational context. With this plan of action, material-value-conservation practices will evolve beyond the present paradigms, which generates more and more plastic waste because they only supports the functionality of plastic packaging, especially its function to display information and to promote the purpose of its contents. Stakeholders aiming to endorse material-value-conservation practices should thus consider alternatives to simply offering more refined tools and drafting more sector-wide recommendations on how to carry out material-value-conservation work. They might find that an exhibition of the various uses and practices for material value conservation may be a more efficient means of encouraging material-value-conservation research and its practices, not only for plastic packaging but also other uses of plastic materials, as well as for various other non-renewable materials, and even renewable materials such as paper, wood, cotton, and other crops and forestry products. The list of stakeholders and their roles generated from the brain-writing and interpretive-process seems sufficient and appropriate, but is not yet structured by this research. In order to optimize its implementation, it is recommended that the relationships among stakeholder roles are structured using interpretive structural modelling. Each stakeholder role’s position in the structure among the other stakeholder roles, along with the direction of the inter-stakeholder relationships, will be very helpful for implementing material-value-conservation practices.

Acknowledgement

This research would not have been possible without the kind support of Hibah PITTA 2017 scheme No. 765/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017. We are grateful to Universitas Indonesia for funding the research that has been carried out.

References

Aligica, P.D.,Herritt, R., 2009. Epistemology, Social Technology, and Expert Judgement: Olaf Helmer’sContribution to Futures Research.Futures, Voume 41, pp. 253-259

Andrady, A.L., 2003. An Environmental Primer. In: Plastic and the Environment, ed. A.L. Andrady. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken

Chase, L.C.,Decker, D.J., Schusler, T.M., 2000. Innovations in Stakeholder Involvement: What's the Next Step?.Wildlife Society Bulletin, Volume 28(1), pp. 208-217

Chase, L.C., Siemer, W.F., Decker, D.J., 2002. Designing Stakeholder Involvement Strategies to Resolve Wildlife Management Controversies.Wildlife Society Bulletin, Volume 30(3), pp. 937-950

Cooke, R.M.,Goossens, L.H.J., 2004. Expert Judgement Elicitation for Risk Assessments of Critical Infrastructures.Journal of Risk Research, Volume 7(6), pp. 634-656

Crist, J.D., Tanner, C.A.,2003. Interpretation/Analysis Methods in Hermeneutic Interpretive Phenomenology.Nursing Research, Volume52(3), pp. 202-205

Delnoij, D.M.J., Rademakers, J., Groenewegen, P., 2010. The Dutch Consumer Quality Index: An Example of Stakeholder Involvement in Indicator Development.BMC Health Services Research, Volume 10(88), pp. 1-12

Gabriel, D.S., 2016. How to IncreasePlasticWasteAcceptance for MechanicalRecycling: An Introduction to MaterialValueConservation and its Phenomenon. Key Engineering Materials, Volume 705, pp. 362-367

Goodship, V., 2007. Introduction to Plastics Recycling. Second Edition. Shropshire, UK:  SmithersRapra Technology Limited

Groot, J., Bing, X., Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J., Bloemhof, J.M., 2014. A Comprehensive Waste Collection Cost Model Applied to Post-consumer Plastic Packaging Waste.Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 85, pp. 79-87

Grosse, F., 2010. Is Recycling “Part of the Solution”? The Role of Recycling in an Expanding Society and a World of Finite Resources. Veolia Environnement, Volume 3(1), pp. 1-17

Honan, S., 1988. The Nurse as Patient Educator: Perceived Responsibilities and Factors Enhancing Role Development.The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, Volume 19(1), pp. 33-37

Jambeck, J.R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., Narayan, R., Law, K., 2015. Plastic Waste Inputs from Land into the Ocean. Science, Volume 347(6223), pp. 768-771

Jones, M.L., 2005. Role Development and Effective Practice in Specialist and Advanced Practice Roles in Acute Hospital Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis.Journal of Advanced Nursing, Volume 49(2), pp. 191-209

Keramitsoglou, K.M.,Tsagarakis, K.P., 2013. Public Participation in Designing a Recycling Scheme towards Maximum Public Acceptance. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 70, pp. 55-67

Kristanto, G.A., Gusniani, I.,Ratna, A., 2015. The Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Program in Depok, Indonesia.International Journal of Technology, Volume 6(2), pp. 264-272

Lee, S.G., Lye, S.W., 2003. Design for ManualPackaging.International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Volume 33(2), pp. 163-189

MacLennan, S., Bekema, H., Wiliamson, P., Campbell, M., Stewart, F., Maclennan, S., N’Dow, J., Lam, T., 2015. A Core Outcome Set for Localised Prostate Cancer Effectiveness Trials: Protocol for a Systematic Review of the Literature and Stakeholder Involvement through Interviews and a Delphi Survey.Trials, Volume 16(76), pp. 1-10

Manrich, S., Santos, A.S.F., 2006. An Overview of Recent Advances and Trends in Plastic Recycling.In: C.V. Loeffe, ed. Conservation and Recycling of Resources: New Research. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc

Mills, P.K., Morris, J.H., 1986. Clients as "Partial" Employees of Service Organizations: Role Development in Client Participation.The Academy of Management Review, Volume 11(4), pp. 726-735

Mumpower, J.L., Stewart, T.R., 1996. Expert Judgement and Expert Disagreement.Thinking and Reasoning, Volume 2(3), pp. 191?211

Myllykangas, P., Kujala, J., Lehtimäki, H., 2010. Analyzing the Essence of Stakeholder Relationships: What do We Need in Addition to Power, Legitimacy, and Urgency?.Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 96, pp. 65-72

Neupane, J., Miura, M., Hayama, T., Kunifuji, S., 2007. Qualitative, Quantitative Evaluation of Ideas in Brain Writing Groupware.IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems,Volume E90-D(10), pp. 1493-1500

Nicolson, P., 2005. Becoming an Advanced Practitioner in Neonatal Nursing: A Psycho-social Study of the Relationship between Educational Preparation and Role Development.Journal of Clinical Nursing, Volume 14(6), pp. 727-738

Nishimoto, K., Sumi, Y.,Mase, K., 2006. Toward an Outsider Agent for Supporting a Brainstorming Session Information Retrieval Method from a Different Viewpoint.Knowledge-Based Systems, Volume 9, pp. 377-384

Okubo,M., Tanakan, S., Fujii, T., 2012. Development of Group Discussion Support System based on Brain Writing Method.In: Information Processing Society of Japan, August 27-29, Hokkaido, Japan

Pollock, A., Campbell, P., Struthers, C., Synnot, A., Nunn, J., Hill, S., Goodare, H., Watts, C., Morley, R., 2017. Stakeholder Involvement in Systematic Reviews: A Protocol for a Systematic Review of Methods, Outcomes and Effects.Research Involvement and Engagement, Volume 3(9), pp. 1-13

Roloff, J., 2008. Learning from Multi-stakeholder Networks: Issue-focussed Stakeholder Management.Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 82, pp. 233-250

Ross, S., Evans, D., 2003. The Environmental Effect of Reusing and Recycling a Plastic-based Packaging System. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 11, pp. 561-571

Selke, S.E., 2006. Plastics Recycling and Biodegradable Plastics. In: C.A. Harper, (Ed.). Handbook of Plastic Technologies. The Complete Guide to Properties and Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill

Surjandari, I., Dhini, A., Lumbantobing, E., Prawiradinata, I., 2015. Big Data Analysis of Indonesian Scholar’s Publications: A Research Theme Mapping.International Journal of Technology, Volume6(4), pp. 650-658

Wilson, C.E., 2006. Brainstorming Pitfalls and Best Practices.Interactions, September-October, pp. 50-63