• Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
  • Metalurgy and Material Engineering

Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps

Nofrijon Sofyan, Aga Ridhova, Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Arief Udhiarto

Cite this article as:
Sofyan, N., Ridhova, A., Yuwono, A.H., Udhiarto, A., 2017. Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1229-1238
Nofrijon Sofyan - Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Aga Ridhova Universitas Indonesia
Akhmad Herman Yuwono Universitas Indonesia
Arief Udhiarto Universitas Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author


Faced with ever-shrinking reserves of fossil-based energy, in addition to the damaging impacts of the use of fossil-based energy sources, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming, efforts are needed to find energy alternatives. Currently under development as an alternative source of renewable energy, utilizing solar energy as its source, is a device incorporating the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which works using the simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle at the molecular level. In this type of device, inorganic oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) offer great potential for the absorption of photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of a TiO2 nanoparticle structure. In this study, a commercial TiO2 nanoparticle was used. The as-received TiO2 nanoparticle was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For sensitizer, a natural dye extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarps was used. The extracted natural dye was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) for the functional groups, whereas ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) was used to examine the absorption activity of the extracted natural dye. Performance of the DSSC was analyzed through a precision current versus potential difference (I-V) curve analyzer. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mangosteen natural dye was obtained using ethanol containing 20% distilled water as compared to commercial organic dye with a PCE of 4.02%. This result is convincing and promising for the next development.

Anthocyanin; Dye-sensitized solar cell; Hydrothermal method; Mangosteen pericarp; TiO2 nanoparticle.


The extraction of natural dye from mangosteen pericarps has been successfully carried out using various solvents. The extracted dyes have also been successfully applied as a sensitizer for DSSC fabricated on a commercial TiO2 nanoparticle anode. In this work, the best solvent for extracting natural dye from mangosteen pericarps for use with a DSSC device is found to be ethanol containing 20% distilled water, with a PCE of 3.91%. The dyes extracted using other solvents are found to have low PCEs; however, the stability of the dyes in the DSSC device are yet to be further confirmed.


The authors would like to express their gratitude for the funding received from the Directorate of Research and Community Services (DRPM), Universitas Indonesia, through Hibah PITTA No. 823/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017.

Supplementary Material
R1-MME-692-20171002203448.pdf Manuscript File pdf

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