• Vol 10, No 5 (2019)
  • Industrial Engineering

Improving Occupational Safety and Health in Footwear Home Industry through Implementation of ILO-PATRIS, NOSACQ-50 and Participatory Ergonomics: A Case Study

Paulus Sukapto, Johanna Renny Octavia, Putu Ayu Diah Pundarikasutra, Paulina Kus Ariningsih, Sani Susanto

Corresponding email: johanna@unpar.ac.id


Cite this article as:
Sukapto, P., Octavia, J.R., Pundarikasutra, P.A.D., Ariningsih, P.K., Susanto, S., 2019. Improving Occupational Safety and Health in Footwear Home Industry through Implementation of ILO-PATRIS, NOSACQ-50 and Participatory Ergonomics: A Case Study. International Journal of Technology. Volume 10(5), pp. 908-917
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Paulus Sukapto Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit no 94, Bandung, 40141, Indonesia
Johanna Renny Octavia Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit no 94, Bandung, 40141, Indonesia
Putu Ayu Diah Pundarikasutra Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit no 94, Bandung, 40141, Indonesia
Paulina Kus Ariningsih Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit no 94, Bandung, 40141, Indonesia
Sani Susanto Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit no 94, Bandung, 40141, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

Indonesia’s footwear industry ranks fifth amongst world exporting countries, after China, India, Vietnam and Brazil, with a share of the international market of 4.4% (Julianto, 2017). As one of Indonesia's most productive economic industries, the footwear sector is divided into two categories: formal (licensed) and informal (unlicensed) home-based manufacturers.

In  practice,  the informal sector is  less concerned  with the  aspects of  facilities provided, work environment and safety. Furthermore, home-based manufacturers recruit employees who have excellent skills in shoemaking without prioritizing the status of their education (ILO, 2004).

The Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 50 of 2012 concerning Occupational Safety and Health (K3) requires that the safety and health of workers is ensured through the prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. In Indonesia, the protection of employee rights was already included in the Constitution of Work Safety Act No.1 of 1970. This law covers all workplaces and emphasizes primary prevention. Moreover, the recently passed Manpower Act (Law No. 13 of 2003) refers to Articles 86 and 87; all owners are required to provide their employees with a minimal level of protection. ILO (2013) also reports that unorganized workplaces may pose potential hazards and harm, and also threaten the health of employees. This could consequently reduce employee income and will certainly reduce the productivity of the company (ILO, 2013). Previous studies have shown the importance of measuring conditions in the working environment as a basis for ergonomic interventions and workplace improvements to ensure worker safety and health (Siswanto et al., 2017; Iridiastadi et al., 2019).

Cibaduyut, Bandung in Indonesia is a provincial sub-region that contains industrial complexes and is home to a large number of home-based footwear manufacturers. In the region, footwear companies have been controlled by families for generations. Many employees are found to be in the low-age and low-education categories, with related factors reported to affect awareness of work safety and hazards in the workplace (Markkanen, 2004). Accidents occur as a result of the interaction of several sequential events within a system.

PATRIS was developed by the ILO to enhance safety in the informal SMME sector in third world countries. PATRIS training for the informal footwear industry has already being implemented in Indonesia in 2002 (ILO, 2003). In 2003, ILO Indonesia required that home-based manufacturers in Cibaduyut must comply with PATRIS; however, these practices have not been widely implemented due to the lack of participation from the employees and owners of existing home-based facilities. In 1999, ILO-IPEC conducted a study of 456 of the 1,132 shoe workshops in the Cibaduyut area, with the focus on work-related hazards (the continuing existence of poor ventilation), chemical handling practices, and fire prevention (ILO, 2003). With regards to work safety, poor ergonomic activities and standard operating procedures for the use of machines or tools were threatening the safety of the operators (employees). The set of problems described above poses a challenge for the development of the informal industrial sector, especially in relation to the process of maintaining the quality and frequency of production and ensuring the safety of the work environment.

The main cause of accidents is the presence of potential hazards. In other words, accidents are not only caused by the unsafe behavior of humans, but also by mistakes made by decision-makers, with the consequence that potential accidents are delayed until triggered by human error. Participatory ergonomics is one of the research tools used in this study to analyse safety and work environment hazards. This can provide a participative solution to employees and owners to improve various aspects of the problem. Moreover, the focus is to ensure that the footwear production runs efficiently, economic rotation activities remain stable, and investment increases in the future. The analytical part of the study uses the participatory ergonomics approach to aspects ranging from the identification of safety problems, to suggestions made to the company.

Participatory ergonomics involves the active involvement of employees in implementing ergonomic knowledge and procedures in the workplace, which is supported by managers and supervisors. Seim and Broberg (2010) define participatory ergonomics as human involvement in the planning and controlling of most work activities, with sufficient power and knowledge to influence the process, resulting in achievement of the desired goal of an increased sense of responsibility for industrial or organizational activities, and of the goal of improved institutional productivity. Workplace hazards have been evaluated by the ILO-PATRIS checklist, used as a tool to improve working conditions in the informal shoe workshop sector (ILO, 2003). The checklist focuses on workplace hazards, preventive measures and day-to-day management practices relevant to informal shoe workshops. The safety climate in the such workshops is ensured by the shared perceptions of members of the social unit of safety-related policies, procedures and practices within the organization. This climate provides a framework for guiding workers' safety behaviour so that they will build perceptions and expectations regarding the impact of such behaviour (Dov, 2008). NOSACQ-50 is used to measure the safety climate developed by safety researchers based on organizational climate theory and safety, psychological theory, previous empirical research, and empirical results obtained through international studies and development processes (Kines et al., 2011). It consists of 50 statements divided into seven dimensions. In addition, EPPEQ has been used to measure the ergonomics of participation in workshops to identify program areas that need to be improved (Matthews et al., 2011).

While PATRIS has been applied widely, the safety climate is rarely checked, even though measurement of it is needed as a first step to achieve the participatory ergonomics, especially in SMMEs. NOSACQ-50 is currently widely used to measure the safety climate in industry. PATRIS is used to measure the eligibility of safety on the facilities and systems, while NOSACQ-50 is used to measure the perception of the safety climate amongst workers. Implementation of participatory ergonomics is enriched by input from the NOSACQ-50 safety climate. At last, participatory ergonomic activity is measured to understand its performance and can thus improve an organization’s safety level. This paper aims to propose an increased safety environment in the informal footwear industry by sequencing measurement by PATRIS (risk assessment), NOSACQ-50 (safety climate), and EPPEQ (participatory ergonomics).

Home-based shoe workshops; Participatory ergonomics; Work safety climate; Workplace hazards

Introduction

Indonesia’s footwear industry ranks fifth amongst world exporting countries, after China, India, Vietnam and Brazil, with a share of the international market of 4.4% (Julianto, 2017). As one of Indonesia's most productive economic industries, the footwear sector is divided into two categories: formal (licensed) and informal (unlicensed) home-based manufacturers.

In  practice,  the informal sector is  less concerned  with the  aspects of  facilities provided, work environment and safety. Furthermore, home-based manufacturers recruit employees who have excellent skills in shoemaking without prioritizing the status of their education (ILO, 2004).

The Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 50 of 2012 concerning Occupational Safety and Health (K3) requires that the safety and health of workers is ensured through the prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. In Indonesia, the protection of employee rights was already included in the Constitution of Work Safety Act No.1 of 1970. This law covers all workplaces and emphasizes primary prevention. Moreover, the recently passed Manpower Act (Law No. 13 of 2003) refers to Articles 86 and 87; all owners are required to provide their employees with a minimal level of protection. ILO (2013) also reports that unorganized workplaces may pose potential hazards and harm, and also threaten the health of employees. This could consequently reduce employee income and will certainly reduce the productivity of the company (ILO, 2013). Previous studies have shown the importance of measuring conditions in the working environment as a basis for ergonomic interventions and workplace improvements to ensure worker safety and health (Siswanto et al., 2017; Iridiastadi et al., 2019).

Cibaduyut, Bandung in Indonesia is a provincial sub-region that contains industrial complexes and is home to a large number of home-based footwear manufacturers. In the region, footwear companies have been controlled by families for generations. Many employees are found to be in the low-age and low-education categories, with related factors reported to affect awareness of work safety and hazards in the workplace (Markkanen, 2004). Accidents occur as a result of the interaction of several sequential events within a system.

PATRIS was developed by the ILO to enhance safety in the informal SMME sector in third world countries. PATRIS training for the informal footwear industry has already being implemented in Indonesia in 2002 (ILO, 2003). In 2003, ILO Indonesia required that home-based manufacturers in Cibaduyut must comply with PATRIS; however, these practices have not been widely implemented due to the lack of participation from the employees and owners of existing home-based facilities. In 1999, ILO-IPEC conducted a study of 456 of the 1,132 shoe workshops in the Cibaduyut area, with the focus on work-related hazards (the continuing existence of poor ventilation), chemical handling practices, and fire prevention (ILO, 2003). With regards to work safety, poor ergonomic activities and standard operating procedures for the use of machines or tools were threatening the safety of the operators (employees). The set of problems described above poses a challenge for the development of the informal industrial sector, especially in relation to the process of maintaining the quality and frequency of production and ensuring the safety of the work environment.

The main cause of accidents is the presence of potential hazards. In other words, accidents are not only caused by the unsafe behavior of humans, but also by mistakes made by decision-makers, with the consequence that potential accidents are delayed until triggered by human error. Participatory ergonomics is one of the research tools used in this study to analyse safety and work environment hazards. This can provide a participative solution to employees and owners to improve various aspects of the problem. Moreover, the focus is to ensure that the footwear production runs efficiently, economic rotation activities remain stable, and investment increases in the future. The analytical part of the study uses the participatory ergonomics approach to aspects ranging from the identification of safety problems, to suggestions made to the company.

Participatory ergonomics involves the active involvement of employees in implementing ergonomic knowledge and procedures in the workplace, which is supported by managers and supervisors. Seim and Broberg (2010) define participatory ergonomics as human involvement in the planning and controlling of most work activities, with sufficient power and knowledge to influence the process, resulting in achievement of the desired goal of an increased sense of responsibility for industrial or organizational activities, and of the goal of improved institutional productivity. Workplace hazards have been evaluated by the ILO-PATRIS checklist, used as a tool to improve working conditions in the informal shoe workshop sector (ILO, 2003). The checklist focuses on workplace hazards, preventive measures and day-to-day management practices relevant to informal shoe workshops. The safety climate in the such workshops is ensured by the shared perceptions of members of the social unit of safety-related policies, procedures and practices within the organization. This climate provides a framework for guiding workers' safety behaviour so that they will build perceptions and expectations regarding the impact of such behaviour (Dov, 2008). NOSACQ-50 is used to measure the safety climate developed by safety researchers based on organizational climate theory and safety, psychological theory, previous empirical research, and empirical results obtained through international studies and development processes (Kines et al., 2011). It consists of 50 statements divided into seven dimensions. In addition, EPPEQ has been used to measure the ergonomics of participation in workshops to identify program areas that need to be improved (Matthews et al., 2011).

While PATRIS has been applied widely, the safety climate is rarely checked, even though measurement of it is needed as a first step to achieve the participatory ergonomics, especially in SMMEs. NOSACQ-50 is currently widely used to measure the safety climate in industry. PATRIS is used to measure the eligibility of safety on the facilities and systems, while NOSACQ-50 is used to measure the perception of the safety climate amongst workers. Implementation of participatory ergonomics is enriched by input from the NOSACQ-50 safety climate. At last, participatory ergonomic activity is measured to understand its performance and can thus improve an organization’s safety level. This paper aims to propose an increased safety environment in the informal footwear industry by sequencing measurement by PATRIS (risk assessment), NOSACQ-50 (safety climate), and EPPEQ (participatory ergonomics).

Conclusion

ILO PATRIS complements NOSACQ-50 in measuring the workplace safety climate when assessing industrial areas which consist of multi-workshops. PATRIS portrays specific problems in the safety facilities inside the system, while NOSACQ-50 shows the perception of safety within it. This method clearly gives a complete picture of the safety conditions inside the system, thus ensuring the success of participatory ergonomics as a tool to improve the work safety climate, especially whenever problems are only vaguely identified. The measurement of EPPEQ describes how well the interior participatory ergonomic system has been implemented; its validity is shown by the measurement of small and medium sized footwear industry centers.

Based on the measurement by PATRIS, NOSACQ-50 and EPPEQ of the four shoe workshops, it is concluded that there is a need for improvement in the working environment, work facilities and work safety climate. The ergonomic activity of participation of the employees is generally sufficient, but this still needs to be improved, as based on the linear regression analysis there is no significant association between the ergonomic activity of participation and the facilities, environment and work safety climate.

Acknowledgement

Abraham, J., Feldman, R., Carlin, C., 2004. Understanding Employee Awareness of Health Care Quality Information: How Can Employers Benefit? Health Services Research, Volume 39(6), pp. 1799–1816

Ackermans, P.A., Solosko, T.A., Spencer, E.C., Gehman, S.E., Nammi, K., Engel, J., Russell, J.K., 2012. A User-friendly Integrated Monitor-adhesive Patch for Long-term Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring. Journal of Electrocardiology, Volume 45(2), pp. 148–153

Ajslev, J., Dastjerdi, E.L., Dyreborg, J., Kines, P., Jeschke, K.C., Sundstrup, E., Jacobsen, M,D., Fallentin, N., Andersen, L.L., 2017. Safety Climate and Accidents at Work: Cross-sectional Study Among 15,000 Workers of the General Working Population. Safety Science, Volume 91, pp. 320–325

Al-Thani, H., El-Menyar, A., Abdelrahman, H., Zarour, A., Consunji, R., Peralta, R., Asim, M., El-Hennawy, H., Parchani, A., Latifi, R., 2014. Workplace-related Traumatic Injuries: Insights from a Rapidly Developing Middle Eastern Country. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2014, pp. 1–8

Dov, Z., 2008. Safety Climate and Beyond: A Multi-level Multi-climate Framework. Safety Science, Volume 46(3), pp. 376–387

ILO, 2003. Improving Safety, Health and the Working Environment in the Informal Footwear Sector. Indonesia

ILO, 2004. Child Labour in the Informal Footwear Sector in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesia

ILO, 2013. Safety and Health Work at Workplace. Indonesia

Iridiastadi, H., Anggawisnu, B., Didin, F.S., Yamin, P.A.R., 2019. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Complaints among Hospital Nurses and Nursing Home Caregivers in Indonesia. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(4), pp. 854–861

Julianto, P.A., 2017. Indonesia 5 Great World Shoe Exporter. Available Online at: https://ekonomi.kompas.com/2017/11/07/222300826/indonesia-5-besar-eksportir-alas-kaki-dunia. Accessed on 26 November 2018

Kim, Y., Park, J., Park, M., 2016. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice. Safety and Health Work, Volume 7(2), pp. 89­­96

Kines, P., Lappalainen, J., Mikkelsen, K.L., Olsen, E., Pousette, A., Tharaldsen, J., Tomasson, K., Törner, M., 2011. Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50): A New Tool for Diagnosing Occupational Safety Climate. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 41(6), pp. 634–646

Lalko, J.F., Kimber, I., Dearman, R.J., Gerberick, G.F., Sarlo, K., Api, A.M., 2011. Chemical Reactivity Measurements: Potential for Characterization of Respiratory Chemical Allergens. Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 25(2), pp. 433–445

Lim, S.K., Shin, H.S., Yoon, K.S., Kwack, S.J., Um, Y.M., Hyeon, J.H., Kwak, H.M., Kim, J.Y., Roh, T.H., Lim, D.S., Shin, M.K., Choi, S.M., Kim, H.S., Lee, B.M., 2014. Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) in Consumer Products. ?Journal Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, Volume 77(22-24), pp. 1502–1521

Listyani, M., Faisal, F., 2014. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Practices of Indonesia Companies. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University, Bandung, Indonesia

Markkanen, P.K., 2004. Occupational Safety and Health in Indonesia. ILO: Manila, Philippines

Matthews, R.A., Gallus, J.A., Henning, R.A., 2011. Participatory Ergonomics: Development of an Employee Assessment Questionnaire. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 43(1), pp. 360–369

Mohammadfam, I., Kamalinia, M., Momeni, M., Golmohammadi, R., Hamidi, Y., Soltanian, A., 2017. Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations. Safety and Health Work, Volume 8(2), pp. 156–161

Nagai, R., Lefèvre, A.M.C., Lefèvre, F., Steluti, J., Teixeira, L.R., Zinn, L., Fischer, F.M., 2007. Knowledge and Practices by Adolescents in Preventing Occupational Injuries: A Qualitative Study. Revista de Saude Publica, Volume 41(3), pp. 404–411

NRCWE, 2014, International Evaluation 2014: National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark

Penman, T.D., Christie, F.J., Andersen, A.N., Bradstock, R.A., Cary, G.J., Henderson, M.K., Price, O.F., Tran, C., Wardle, G.M., Williams, R.J., York, A., 2011. Prescribed Burning: How Can It Work to Conserve the Things We Value? International Journal of Wildland Fire, Volume 20(6), pp. 721–733

Seim, R., Broberg, O., 2010. Participatory Workspace Design: A New Approach for Ergonomists? International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 40(1), pp. 25–33

Siswanto, D., Lestari, V., Iridiastadi, H., 2017. Evaluation of Machinist’s Fatigue at PT. Kereta Api Persero DAOP II Bandung. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(2), pp. 262–271

Van Eerd, D., Cole, D., Irvin, E., Mahood, Q., Keown, K., Theberge, N., Village, J., St. Vincent, M., Cullen, K,L., 2010. Process and Implementation of Participatory Ergonomic Interventions: A Systematic Review. Ergonomics, Volume 53(10), pp. 1153–1166

References

Abraham, J., Feldman, R., Carlin, C., 2004. Understanding Employee Awareness of Health Care Quality Information: How Can Employers Benefit? Health Services Research, Volume 39(6), pp. 1799–1816

Ackermans, P.A., Solosko, T.A., Spencer, E.C., Gehman, S.E., Nammi, K., Engel, J., Russell, J.K., 2012. A User-friendly Integrated Monitor-adhesive Patch for Long-term Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring. Journal of Electrocardiology, Volume 45(2), pp. 148–153

Ajslev, J., Dastjerdi, E.L., Dyreborg, J., Kines, P., Jeschke, K.C., Sundstrup, E., Jacobsen, M,D., Fallentin, N., Andersen, L.L., 2017. Safety Climate and Accidents at Work: Cross-sectional Study Among 15,000 Workers of the General Working Population. Safety Science, Volume 91, pp. 320–325

Al-Thani, H., El-Menyar, A., Abdelrahman, H., Zarour, A., Consunji, R., Peralta, R., Asim, M., El-Hennawy, H., Parchani, A., Latifi, R., 2014. Workplace-related Traumatic Injuries: Insights from a Rapidly Developing Middle Eastern Country. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2014, pp. 1–8

Dov, Z., 2008. Safety Climate and Beyond: A Multi-level Multi-climate Framework. Safety Science, Volume 46(3), pp. 376–387

ILO, 2003. Improving Safety, Health and the Working Environment in the Informal Footwear Sector. Indonesia

ILO, 2004. Child Labour in the Informal Footwear Sector in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesia

ILO, 2013. Safety and Health Work at Workplace. Indonesia

Iridiastadi, H., Anggawisnu, B., Didin, F.S., Yamin, P.A.R., 2019. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Complaints among Hospital Nurses and Nursing Home Caregivers in Indonesia. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(4), pp. 854–861

Julianto, P.A., 2017. Indonesia 5 Great World Shoe Exporter. Available Online at: https://ekonomi.kompas.com/2017/11/07/222300826/indonesia-5-besar-eksportir-alas-kaki-dunia. Accessed on 26 November 2018

Kim, Y., Park, J., Park, M., 2016. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice. Safety and Health Work, Volume 7(2), pp. 89­­96

Kines, P., Lappalainen, J., Mikkelsen, K.L., Olsen, E., Pousette, A., Tharaldsen, J., Tomasson, K., Törner, M., 2011. Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50): A New Tool for Diagnosing Occupational Safety Climate. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 41(6), pp. 634–646

Lalko, J.F., Kimber, I., Dearman, R.J., Gerberick, G.F., Sarlo, K., Api, A.M., 2011. Chemical Reactivity Measurements: Potential for Characterization of Respiratory Chemical Allergens. Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 25(2), pp. 433–445

Lim, S.K., Shin, H.S., Yoon, K.S., Kwack, S.J., Um, Y.M., Hyeon, J.H., Kwak, H.M., Kim, J.Y., Roh, T.H., Lim, D.S., Shin, M.K., Choi, S.M., Kim, H.S., Lee, B.M., 2014. Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) in Consumer Products. ?Journal Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, Volume 77(22-24), pp. 1502–1521

Listyani, M., Faisal, F., 2014. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Practices of Indonesia Companies. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University, Bandung, Indonesia

Markkanen, P.K., 2004. Occupational Safety and Health in Indonesia. ILO: Manila, Philippines

Matthews, R.A., Gallus, J.A., Henning, R.A., 2011. Participatory Ergonomics: Development of an Employee Assessment Questionnaire. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 43(1), pp. 360–369

Mohammadfam, I., Kamalinia, M., Momeni, M., Golmohammadi, R., Hamidi, Y., Soltanian, A., 2017. Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations. Safety and Health Work, Volume 8(2), pp. 156–161

Nagai, R., Lefèvre, A.M.C., Lefèvre, F., Steluti, J., Teixeira, L.R., Zinn, L., Fischer, F.M., 2007. Knowledge and Practices by Adolescents in Preventing Occupational Injuries: A Qualitative Study. Revista de Saude Publica, Volume 41(3), pp. 404–411

NRCWE, 2014, International Evaluation 2014: National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark

Penman, T.D., Christie, F.J., Andersen, A.N., Bradstock, R.A., Cary, G.J., Henderson, M.K., Price, O.F., Tran, C., Wardle, G.M., Williams, R.J., York, A., 2011. Prescribed Burning: How Can It Work to Conserve the Things We Value? International Journal of Wildland Fire, Volume 20(6), pp. 721–733

Seim, R., Broberg, O., 2010. Participatory Workspace Design: A New Approach for Ergonomists? International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 40(1), pp. 25–33

Siswanto, D., Lestari, V., Iridiastadi, H., 2017. Evaluation of Machinist’s Fatigue at PT. Kereta Api Persero DAOP II Bandung. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(2), pp. 262–271

Van Eerd, D., Cole, D., Irvin, E., Mahood, Q., Keown, K., Theberge, N., Village, J., St. Vincent, M., Cullen, K,L., 2010. Process and Implementation of Participatory Ergonomic Interventions: A Systematic Review. Ergonomics, Volume 53(10), pp. 1153–1166