• Vol 10, No 4 (2019)
  • Chemical Engineering

Innovative Chemically Modified Biosorbent for Removal of Procion Red

Fatin Izzaidah Anuar, Tony Hadibarata, Muryanto , Adhi Yuniarto, Didik Priyandoko, Ajeng Arum Sari

Corresponding email: ajeng.a.sari@gmail.com


Cite this article as:
Anuar, F.I., Hadibarata, T., Muryanto., Yuniarto, A., Priyandoko, D., Sari, A.A., 2019. Innovative Chemically Modified Biosorbent for Removal of Procion Red. International Journal of Technology. Volume 10(4), pp. 776-786
137
Downloads
Fatin Izzaidah Anuar Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Tony Hadibarata Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University, CDT 250, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia
Muryanto Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314, Indonesia
Adhi Yuniarto Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Environmental and Geo Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Didik Priyandoko Department of Biology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jalan Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
Ajeng Arum Sari Department of Biology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jalan Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

The potential biosorbent of stinky bean peel (Parkia speciosa) (SBP) was investigated for azo dye Procion Red Mx-5B removal due to their accessibility, economically feasible, easy pre-treatment, and non-toxic. This study aims to determine the effect of chemically modified of the SBP, that a massive agricultural waste in Sarawak, to enhance its ability during adsorption of dye. The biosorbent used was dried, ground, and sieved through 600 µm sieve to obtain a similar average size. Impregnation with some chemicals was performed by using ZnCl2, K2CO3, H2SO4 and NaOH for 24 h. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin techniques were examined to calculate the isotherm data. The result showed that the sorption capacity of the SBP was improved by ZnCl2 modification. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Freundlich model, while the kinetic study was fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Further, it was concluded that dyes uptake by biosorbent was based mainly on the role of carboxyl and a hydroxyl group.

Biosorption; Chemical modification; Procion red; Stinky bean peel

Introduction

Dyes have been progressively utilized as a part of the material in textile, leather, paper, rubber, plastics, cosmetic industries, commercial nourishment enterprises as well as pharmaceuticals since these commonly have complex aromatic bonds which are more stable and biodegradable (Gong et al., 2005; Mane et al., 2007). At present, there are more than a thousand colors are commercially manufactured by the industry, where 20% is produced in the textile industry, and 15% are released into the environment during synthesis, processing or application (Liao et al., 2013). The discharge of dye wastewaters into the environment without any treatment caused eutrophication, perturbations in aquatic life such as photosynthesis obstructed, and aesthetic unpleasant.  Numerous dyes present in the industry is the azo class which extensively becomes a significant pollutant in dye effluents (Pandey et al., 2007). Azo dyes have one or more nitrogen bonds (–N=N–), sulfonic or aromatic groups which some of them have a half-life greater than 2000 h under daylight and imperviousness to biodegradation which danger for the environment (Grimes et al., 1999).

Various techniques had been applied to eliminate organic contaminants in the environment, such as coagulation/flocculation, filtration, reverse osmosis, membranes, advanced oxidation processes, and microbial degradation (Rubin & Soto, 2009; Hadibarata et al., 2011; Hadibarata et al., 2013). However, those treatments exhibit high capital, high cost and much maintenance besides multipart procedures. Inversely, biosorption is proof to be a simple technique due to the low cost of operation and simple design.

Biosorption is an alternative biotechnological process for removing organic and inorganic pollutants using natural and non-toxic sorbent. Another primary benefit of biosorption is easy to use very cheap materials as sorbents such as agriculture waste (Haghseresht & Lu, 1998; Grimes et al., 1999; Hayashi et al., 2000; Gong et al., 2008; Han et al., 2010; Han et al., 2011; Lam et al., 2017; Olufemi & Eniodunmo, 2018). Because of their accessibility, economically feasible, easy pre-treatment, and non-toxic, agricultural waste as biosorbents is increasingly used in pollution treatment.

Many techniques were implemented to improve biosorbent capability such as modification of the chemical composition of biosorbents which significantly increased the sorption capacity (Wirasnita et al., 2014). Modifications on biosorption properties were studied due to development of contact surface of biosorbent, by improving its porosity and removal capability. Additionally, the target of modification was the active functional groups on the biosorbent surface, that playing an important role for binding contaminants (Demirbas, 2008).

In this study, the chemical modification of SBP as biosorbent to remove PR solution was examined. Various parameters such as contact time, initial PR concentration and biosorbent dosage were conducted in batch studies. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were also considered to study the dye uptake onto SBP.

Conclusion

The present study proved that the raw SBP was potential to be used as biosorbent to remove PR from aqueous solution. The biosorption time was 12 h with 77.43% removal. Based on FT-IR analysis, the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups affords the adsorption of organic pollutants. The biosorption follows the pseudo-second-order of kinetic model with R2 of 0.995. The isotherm data indicated that Freundlich isotherm showed better correlation coefficient with R2 = 0.9993, 0.9786 and 0.9728 for 1, 3 and 5 g of biosorbent dosage. This biosorbent is valuable since they are green, economical, and easy to prepare with simple design of biosorption technique

Acknowledgement

A part of this research was financially supported by a Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Ministry of High Education Malaysia (No. 4F465).

References

Al-Qodah, Z.Shawabkah, R., 2009. Production and Characterization of Granular Activated Carbon from Activated Sludge. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 26(1), pp. 127–136

Azzaz, A.A., Jellali, S., Akrout, H., Assadi, A.A., Bousselmi, L., 2017. Optimization of a Cationic Dye Removal by a Chemically Modified Agriculture by-product using Response Surface Methodology: Biomasses Characterization and Adsorption Properties. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 24(11), pp. 9831–9846

Demirbas, A., 2008. Heavy Metal Adsorption onto Agro-based Waste Materials: A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 157(2-3), pp. 220229

Do?an, M., Abak, H., Alkan, M., 2008. Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Hazelnut Shells: Equilibrium, Parameters and Isotherms. Water, Air, and Soil PollutionVolume 192(1–4), pp. 141–153

Ghaedi, M., Karimi, F., Barazesh, B., Sahraei, R., Daneshfar, A., 2013. Removal of Reactive Orange 12 from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Tin Sulfide Nanoparticle Loaded on Activated Carbon. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Volume 19(3), pp. 756–763

Gong, R., Sun, Y., Chen, J., Liu, H., Yang, C., 2005. Effect of Chemical Modification on Dye Adsorption Capacity of Peanut Hull. Dyes and Pigments, Volume 67(3), pp. 175–181

Gong, R., Zhu, S., Zhang, D., Chen, J., Ni, S., Guan, R., 2008. Adsorption Behavior of Cationic Dyes on Citric Acid Esterifying Wheat Straw: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Profile. Desalination, Volume 230(1–3), pp. 220–228

Grimes, D.I., Pardo-Igúzquiza, E., Bonifacio, R., 1999. Optimal Areal Rainfall Estimation using Raingauges and Satellite Data. Journal of HydrologyVolume 222(1–4), pp. 93–108

Haghseresht, F., Lu, G.Q., 1998. Adsorption Characteristics of Phenolic Compounds onto Coal-Reject-Derived Adsorbents. Energy and Fuels, Volume 12(6), pp. 1100–1107

Han, R., Zhang, L., Song, C., Zhang, M., Zhu, H., Zhang, L., 2010. Characterization of Modified Wheat Straw, Kinetic and Equilibrium Study about Copper Ion and Methylene Blue Adsorption in Batch Mode. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 79(4), pp. 1140–1149

Han, X., Wang, W., Ma, X., 2011. Adsorption Characteristics of Methylene Blue onto Low Cost Biomass Material Lotus Leaf. Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 171(1), pp. 1–8

Hadibarata, T., Tachibana, S., Askari, M., 2011. Identification of Metabolites from Phenanthrene Oxidation by Phenoloxidases and Dioxygenases of Polyporus sp. S133. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 21(3), pp. 299304

Hadibarata, T., Chuang, T.Z., Rubiyatno, Zubir, M.M.F.A., Khudhair, A.B., Yusoff, A.R.M., Salim, M.R., Hidayat, T., 2013. Identification of Naphthalene Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Bioprocess and Biosystem Engineering, Volume 36(10), pp. 14551461

Hayashi, J., Kazehaya, A., Muroyama, K.Watkinson, A.P., 2000. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Lignin by Chemical Activation. Carbon, Volume  38(13), pp. 1873–1878

Hoda, N., Bayram, E., Ayranci, E., 2006. Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies on the Removal of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Cloth. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 137(1), pp. 344–351

Kusrini, E., Kinastiti, D.D., Wilson, L.D., Usman, A., Rahman, A., 2018. Adsorption of Lanthanide Ions from an Aqueous Solution in Multicomponent Systems using Activated Carbon from Banana Peels (Musa paradisiaca L.). International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(6), pp. 1132–1139

Lam, S.S., Liew, R.K., Wong, Y.M., Yek, N.Y.P., Ma, N.L., Lee, C.L., Chase, H.A., 2017. Microwave-assisted Pyrolisis with Chemical Activation, an Innovative Method to Convert Orange Peel into Activated Carbon with Improved Properties as Dye Adsorbent. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 162, pp. 1376–1387

Liao, C.-S, Hung, C.-H., Chao, S.-L., 2013. Decolorization of Azo Dye Reactive Black B by Bacillus Cereus Strain Hj-1. ChemosphereVolume 90(7), pp. 2109–2114

Malik, P.K., 2004. Dye Removal from Wastewater using Activated Carbon Developed from Sawdust: Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 113(1), pp. 81–88

Mane, V.S., Deo Mall, I., Chandra Srivastava, V., 2007. Kinetic and Equilibrium Isotherm Studies for the Adsorptive Removal of Brilliant Green Dye from Aqueous Solution by Rice Husk Ash. Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 84(4), pp. 390–400

Meshko, V., Markovska, L., Mincheva, M., Rodrigues, A.E., 2001. Adsorption of Basic Dye on Granular Activated Carbon and Natural Zeolite. Water Research, Volume 35(14), pp. 33573366

Namasivayam, C., Kavitha, D., 2002. Removal of Congo Red from Water by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coir Pith, an Agricultural Solid Waste. Dyes and Pigments, Volume 54(1), pp. 47–58

Nowicki, P., Kazmierczak-Razna, J., Pietrzak, R., 2016. Physicochemical and Adsorption Properties of Carbonaceous Sorbents Prepared by Activation of Tropical Fruit Skins with Potassium Carbonate. Materials & Design, Volume 90, pp. 579–585

Olufemi, B., Eniodunmo, O., 2018. Adsorption of Nickel(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution using Banana Peel and Coconut Shell. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(3), pp. 434–445