• Vol 7, No 1 (2016)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Jig Prototype for Computer-Assisted Total Knee Replacement and Its Flow Simulation

Abu Bakar Sulong, Amir Arifin, Zambri Harun

Published at : 30 Jan 2016
IJtech : IJtech Vol 7, No 1 (2016)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v7i1.2115

Cite this article as:

Sulong, A.B., Arifin, A., Harun, Z., 2016. Jig Prototype for Computer-Assisted Total Knee Replacement and Its Flow Simulation. International Journal of Technology. Volume 7(1), pp.132-140

Abu Bakar Sulong Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Amir Arifin Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sriwijaya University, 30662 Indralaya, South Sumatera, Indonesia
Zambri Harun Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Email to Corresponding Author


This paper discusses the design and development of a prototype of a knee surgery cutting jig, the jig holder, and the jig injection mold by Rapid Prototyping (RP). The aim of this study is to design a jig and a jig holder that allow surgeons to correctly, precisely, and consistently perform knee replacement surgery. The design concept for the surgery jig and jig holder was selected using the Pugh method with medical-grade 316L stainless steel for material fabrication. A rapid prototype model was built directly from its CAD model in stereo lithography (STL) format by using the Fused Deposition Method (FDM). MasterCAM and Moldflow simulation were performed to generated G-codes and a possibility of jig fabrication using Metal Injection Molding (MIM), respectively. The Moldflow result provided an enhanced interpretation of the injection mold design. A conceptual mold design was again developed by the FDM. The prototype of the cutting jig and its holder underwent a machining process. The prototype was then tested on dummy bones to determine the functional performance and efficiency of the said prototype. Results indicated an increase in cutting accuracy and cutting time compared with computer-assisted total knee surgery without the jig system.

Design, Forming process, Knee replacement surgery, Numerical simulation


Arabelovic, S., McAlindon, T.E., 2005. Considerations in the Treatment of Early Osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep, Volume 7(1), pp. 29–35

Arifin, A., Sulong, A,B., Muhamad, N., Syarif, J., Ramli, M.I., 2015. Powder Injection Molding of HA/Ti6Al4V Composite using Palm Stearin as Based Binder for Implant Material. Materials & Design, Volume 65, pp. 1028–1034

Bardakos, N.V., 2014. Customised Jigs in Primary Total Knee Replacement. Orthopedic & Muscular System, S2-007(01)

Barriere, T.H., Liu, B., Gelin, J.C., 2003. Determination of the Optimal Process Parameters in Metal Injection Molding from Experiments and Numerical Modeling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 143–144, pp. 636–644

Bibb, R., Eggbeer, D., Evans, P., Bocca, A., Sugar, A., 2009. Rapid Manufacture of Custom-fitting Surgical Guides. Rapid Prototyping Journal, Volume 15(5), pp. 346–354

Binet, C., Heaney, D.F., Spina, R., Tricarico, L., 2005. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Metal Injection Molded Products. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 164(165), pp.1160–1166

Clarius, M., Aldinger, P.R., Brucker, T., Seeger, J.B., 2009. Saw Cuts in Unicompartmental Knee Arthoplasty: An Analysis of Sawbone Preparations. The Knee, Volume 16, pp. 314–316

Devi, K.B., Singh, K., Rajendran, N., 2011. Sol–gel Synthesis and Characterisation of Nanoporous Zirconium Titanate Coated on 316L SS for Biomedical Applications. J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol., Volume 59(3), pp. 513–520

Dieter, G.E., 2000. Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach. 3rd Edition, New York: McGraw–Hill

German, R.M., Bose, A., 1997. Injection Moldings of Metals and Ceramics. USA: Metal Powder Industries Federation

Haaker, R.G., Stockheim, M., Kamp, M., Proff, G., Breitenfelder, J., Ottersbach, A., 2005. Computer-assisted Navigation Increases Precision of Component Placement in Total Knee Arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res, Volume 433, pp. 152–159

Harman, M.K., Bonin, S.J., Leslie, C.J., Banks, S.A., Hodge, W.A., 2014. Total Knee Arthroplasty Designed to Accommodate the Presence or Absence of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament. Advances in Orthopedics, Volume 2014 (2014), pp. 1–8

Kendoff, D.O., Moreau-Gaudry, A., Plaskos, C., Granchi, C., Sculco, T.P., Pearle, A.D., 2009. A Navigated 8-in-1 Femoral Cutting Guide for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Technical Development and Cadaveric Evaluation. The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 25(1), pp. 138–145

Kluge, W.H., 2007. Computer-assisted Knee Replacement Techniques. Current Orthopaedics, Volume 21, pp. 200–206

Liou, F.W., 2008. Rapid Prototyping and Engineering Applications: A Toolbox for Prototype Development. New York: Taylor and Francis Group

Macdonald, W., Styf, J., Carlsson, L.V., Jacobsson, C.M., 2004. Improved Tibial Cutting Accuracy in Knee Arthroplasty. Journal of Medical Engineering and Physics, Volume 26, pp. 807–812

Park, H.-P., Cha, B.-S., Park, S.-B., Choi, J.-H., Kim, D.-H., Rhee, B.-O., Lee, K.-H., 2014. A Study on the Void Formation in Residual Wall Thickness of Fluid-Assisted Injection Molding Parts. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 2014, pp. 1–6

Quinard, C., Barriere, T., Gelin, J.C., 2009. Development and Property Identification of 316L Stainless Steel Feedstock for PIM and ?PIM. Powder Technology, Volume 190, pp.123–128

Zafiropoulos, G., Attfield, S.F., 1995. An Intramedullary Aligned Bone Cutting Jig for Elbow Replacement. Medical Engineering Physics, Volume 17(2), pp. 111–114

Table of Contents