• Vol 6, No 2 (2015)
  • Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering

New Approach to Determine Mathematical Equation for Optimum Tilt Angle Of Solar Panel in Indonesia and Its Techno Economy Impact

Adrian Danar Wibisono, Eko Adhi Setiawan

Publish at : 01 Apr 2015 - 00:00
IJtech : IJtech Vol 6, No 2 (2015)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v6i2.988

Cite this article as:

Wibisono, A.D.., & Setiawan, E.A.. 2018. New Approach to Determine Mathematical Equation for Optimum Tilt Angle Of Solar Panel in Indonesia and Its Techno Economy Impact. International Journal of Technology. Volume 6(2), pp.180-189

Adrian Danar Wibisono Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Eko Adhi Setiawan Tropical Renewable Energy Center (TREC), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author


The findings in this study refute mathematical equation in determining the optimum angle of the solar panel installation provided by Duffie and Beckmann, Heywood, Lunde, Chinnery, Lof & Tybout, and Garg. Existing research has been determining the optimum tilt angle of the solar panel with a subtropical location perspective. Influence degrees latitude (Y) and longitude (X) to the optimum angle of solar panel installation in the territory of Indonesia represented by the equation -0,0093 X + 1,3042 Y. RMSE value is 1,88 and R2 value is 0,928. In this study, a mathematical equation based on the coordinates of the location to determine the optimum tilt angle of the installation of solar panels in Indonesia and analyze its impact on the technical and economical aspects. The maximum potential economic benefits gained from the installation of solar panels at the optimum angle in Indonesia, assumed Feed in Tariff in Indonesia is US$ 0,25, with a capacity of 1 MW solar and assumed to have a production life of 20 years, are US$ 740.839,66.

Latitude, Longitude, Optimum Tilt Angle, Solar Panel


Perusahaan Listrik Negara. (2015-2024). Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT PLN (PUPTL PLN) 2015-2024

Perusahaan Listrik Negara (2013), Statistik PLN 2013

Duffie, John A. & Beckmenn, William A. (1980), Solar Engineering of Thermal Process, New York, Wiley-Interscience Publication

Heywood H. (1971), Operating experience with solar water heating. IHVE J 1971;39:63-9

Lunde PJ. (1980), Solar Thermal Engineering: Space Heating and Hot Water Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Chinnery DNW. (1971) Solar Water Heating in South Africa. CSIR Report 1971;248:44

Lof GOG, Tybout RA (1973), Cost of House Heating with Solar Energy. Sol Energy 1973;14(3):253–78.

Garg HP. (1982); Treatise on Solar Energy. In: Fundamentals of Solar Energy, vol. I. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Ekadewi A. Handoyo dan Djatmiko Ichsani. Prabowo (2012), The Optimal Tilt Angle for Solar Collector, International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application, Elsevier, Energy Procedia 32 ( 2013 ) 166 – 175

Arbi Gharakhani Siraki dan Pragasen Pillay (2012), Study of optimum tilt angles for solar panels in different latitudes for urban applications,Canada, Elsevier, Solar Energy 86 (2012) 1920–1928

Abdul Jabbar N. Khalifa (2011), On the effect of cover tilt angle of the simple solar still on its productivity in different seasons and latitudes, Baghdad, Elsevier, Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 431–436

Camelia Stanciu dan Dorin Stanciu (2014), Optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors all over the World – A declination dependence formula and comparisons of three solar radiation models, Romania, Elsevier, Energy Conversion and Management 81 (2014) 133–143

Ísis Portolan dos Santos dan Ricardo Rüther (2014), Limitations in solar module azimuth and tilt angles in building integrated photovoltaics at low latitude tropical sites in Brazil, Brazil, Elsevier, Renewable Energy 63 (2014) 116e124

Al-Hinai H, Al-Nassri MS, Jubran BA. Effect of climatic, design and operational parameters on the yield of a simple solar still. Energy Convers Manage 2002;43:1639–50.

Singh HN, Tiwari GN. Monthly performance of passive and active solar still for different Indian climatic conditions. Desalination 2004;168:145–50.

Aybar H, Assefi H. Simulation of a solar still to investigate water depth and glass angle. Desalination Water Treat 2009;7:35–40.

Hassane Darhmaoui dan Driss Lahjouji (2013), Latitude Based Model for Tilt Angle Optimization for Solar Collectors in the Mediterranean Region, The Mediterranean Green Energy Forum 2013, MGEF-13, Elsevier, Energy Procedia 42 ( 2013 ) 426 – 435.

Sanders, Joannde (2015), Clouds and Energy Cycle, CERES NASA, http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/ceres_brochure.php?page=2

NASA (2014), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Methodology Version 3.1.2, Amerika Serikat

Solar Energy International (2013), Solar Energy Handbook, US, Pearson Education

U.S. Department of Energy (2010), White Paper to Explore A Grand Challenge for Electricity from Solar, Advance Research Project Agency - Energy

User Guide : PVSyst Contextual Help; PVsyst SA 1994-2012, www.pvsyst.com

Wiliiam G Sullivan and Friends. (2006). Engineering Economy Thirteen Edition. Pearson International Edition