|Cahya Widiyati||ATK Polytechnic, Ministry of Industry|
|Herry Poernomo||National Nuclear Energy Agency|
The land area and production of rubber on smallholder rubber plantations contribute to about 85% and 81% of national rubber production, respectively. Based on this, having technology to utilize vulcanized natural rubber latex (NRL) in a way that is simple, inexpensive, energy-saving, environmentally friendly, and according to the quality standards of the processing of NRL is important. The purpose of the current research is to design of a prototype photoreactor ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for the vulcanization of NRL that is irradiated (VNRLI) to produce NRL-irradiated free carcinogens and protein allergens. The methodology used is the technological development of a prototype photoreactor with an UV-mercury irradiator that located in a vertical cylindrical glass column with the capacity of VNRLI about 249.2 tons/year. The development of technologies applied to increase the capacity of VNRLI by enlarging the area of thin NRL films to be irradiated with UV-A rays derived from UV-LED irradiators that are more energy-efficient, long-life, and environmentally friendly than UV-mercury irradiators. The results allowed for the design of a prototype photoreactor UV-LEDs to process feed NRL with the capacity VNRLI about 522 tons/year. The UV-LED photoreactor prototype design results show that the UV-LED photoreactor prototype is ready to test the VNRLI process function that can produce NRL- irradiated free carcinogen and protein allergens.
Irradiator; Natural rubber latex; Photoreactor; UV-LEDs; Vulcanization
From the design of UV-LED photoreactor prototypes, it can be concluded that UV-LED photoreactor prototypes can be tested for the VNRLI process to obtain irradiated NRL-free carcinogens and proteins allergen. Furthermore NRL-free carcinogens and proteins allergen can be used as raw material for the manufacturing of medical devices such as elastic bandages, medical bandages, surgical gloves, bactericidal plaster, catheters, condoms, nipples, mattresses, and pillows.
We greatly appreciatethe research grants from the National Innovation System Research Incentive 2015(RT-2015-0427) of the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education.
Cornish, K., Xie, W., Kostyal, D., Shintani, D., Hamilton, R.G., 2015. Immunological Analysis of the Alternate Rubber Crop Taraxacum koksaghyz Indicates Multiple Proteins Cross-Reactive with Hevea brasiliensis Latex Allergens. Journal of Biotechnology Biomaterials, Volume 5(4), pp. 1–6
Hansupalak, N., Srisuk, S., Wiroonpochit, P., Chisti, Y., 2016. Sulfur-Free Prevulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex by Ultraviolet Irradiation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Volume 55 (14), pp 3974?3981.
Harahap, H., Hadinatan, K., Hartanto, A., Surya, E., Surya, I., 2015. Utilization of Cassava Pell Waste Modifies Alkanolamide as Filler in Natural Rubber Latex Products: The Effect of Drying Time. Magazine of Leather Rubber and Plastic, Volume 31(1), pp. 1–8
Heathcote, J., 2010. UV-LED Overview Part I - Operation and Measurement. Radtech Report, Technical Paper, pp. 23–33
Isa, S.Z., Yahya, R., Hassan, A., Tahir, M., 2007. The Influence of Temperature and Reaction Time in the Degradation of Natural Rubber Latex. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Volume 11(1), pp.42–47
Johns, A., Sham Aan, M.P., Johns, J., Bhagyashekar, M.S., Nakason, C., Kalkornsurapranee, E., 2015. Optimization Study of Ammonia and Glutaraldehyde Contents on Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex. Iranian Polymer Journal, Volume 24, pp. 901–909
Kinasih, N.A., Fathurrohman, M.I., Suparto, D., 2015. Effect of Vulcanization Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Vulcanized Natural and Acrylonitrile-butadiene Rubbers. Magazine of Leather Rubber and Plastic, Volume 31(2), pp. 65–74
Kokollari, F., Daka, H., Daka, A., Haxhijaha L.K., 2015. Latex-Fruit Syndrome – Case Report. UNIVERSI Journal, Volume 01(04), pp. 119–123
Lin, H., Lin, R., Li, N., 2015. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 12, pp. 10984–10994
Marsongko, 2013. Making Natural Latex Gloves from the Vulcanized Radiation and Sulphure. Package Chemical Journal, Volume 35(2), pp. 131–136
Nanti, S., Wongputtisin, P., Sakulsingharoj, C., Klongklaew, A., Chomsri, N., 2014. Removal of Allergenic Protein in Natural Rubber Latex using Protease from Bacillus sp. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal, Volume 2, pp. 216–223
Pure Pro Water Corp., 2010. Ultraviolet Water Sterilizer. Purepro USA Corp., Illinois USA. Available online at http://www.purepro.info/pdf/UV.pdf
Putra, N.S.S.U, Thamrin, Sugeng, R., 2008. Ultraviolet System as an Important Desinfectant Device in Hatchery: Engineering and Design. Marine and Fisheries Department, pp. 1–14. Available online at https://www.slideshare.net/putranana/ultraviolet-sebagai-alat-disinfektan-penting-di-pembenihan-1499510
Radford, R., Frain, H., Ryan, M.P., Slattery, C., McMorrow, T., 2013. Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Kidneys. International Journal of Molecular Science, Volume 14, pp. 19416–19433
Rasdi, F.A.M., Rahmadsyah, A., Alias, A., 2015. Prevalence of Latex Glove Hypersensitivity among Dental Personnel in Prevalence of Latex Glove Hypersensitivity among Dental Personnel in Based). IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, Volume 14(12), pp. 102–107
Raymont, J., 2011. UV Measurement & Process Control: Theory vs. Reality Overview of EIT Products & Measurement Techniques. EIT Instrument Markets Sterling, Virginia, USA
Schlögl, S., Aust, N., Schaller, R., Holzner, A., Kern, W., 2010. Survey of Chemical Residues and Biological Evaluation of Photochemically Pre-vulcanized Surgical Gloves. Monatsh Chem, Volume 141, pp. 1365–1372
Schlögl, S., Temel, A., Kern, W., Leoben, Schaller, R., Holzner, A., Wimpassing, 2010. Manufacture of Non-allergenic Surgical Gloves via UV Techniques. Rohstoffe Und Anwendungen Raw Materials and Applications, pp. 187–191
Schlögl, S., Temel, A., Schaller, R., Holzner, A., Kern, W., 2012. Characteristics of the Photochemical Prevulcanization in a Falling Film Photoreactor. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume 124, pp. 3478–3486
Schlögl, S., Trutschel, M.L., Chassé, W., Letofsky-Papst, I., Schaller, R., Holzner, A., Riess, G., Kern, W., Saalwächter, K., 2014. Photo-vulcanization using Thiol-ene Chemistry: Film Formation, Morphology and Network Characteristics of UV Crosslinked Rubber Latices. Polymer, Volume 55, pp. 5584–5595
Schupple, B., 2009. White Paper: Induction Lamps vs. LED Lamps, LED Industries, Inc. Toll Free 1-888-700-7815.
Tambunan, F.E., Harahap, H., 2015. Effect of Temperature and Composition Vulcanization Clay Modified by Alkanolamide RBDPKO of Raw Materials on the Product of Natural Rubber Latex. Chemical Engineering Journal NSU, Volume 4(4), pp. 64–70
Widiyati, C., Poernomo, H., 2015. Photoreactor Design Concept Based on Irradiator UV-LED for Pre-Vulcanise Natural Rubber Latex. In: National Seminar Proceedings of Nuclear Energy Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency-Udayana University, Denpasar-Bali, Volume 1/2015, pp. 543–555
Wijesinghe, H.G.I.M., Gamage, W.G.T.W., Ariyananda, P., Jayasinghe, H.A.S.L., Weerawansha, A.N.R., 2016. Optimization of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Loading in Natural Rubber Latex Based Disposable Gloves. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6(3), pp. 266–269
Wu, M., McIntosh, J. Liu, J., (2016), Current Prevalence Rate of Latex Allergy: Why it Remains a Problem?. Journal
Occupational Health, Volume 58,