Wijayanti, D.F., Suwartha, N., Priadi, C.R., 2018. Implementation of Lean Principles to Improve the Operations of a Sales Warehouse in the Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(2), pp.267-274
|Dwita Fitriani Wijayanti||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Departement of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
|Nyoman Suwartha||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
|Cindy Rianti Priadi||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia|
Anaerobic digestion (AD); Fat oil and grease (FOG); Food waste; Waste management
Solid waste is any waste product arising from the activities of humans and animals. It is normally in solid form and disposed of when it is not wated for reuse; it contains both organic and inorganic waste components (Tchobanoglous, 1993). The average level of waste generation in 23 developing countries is about 0.77 kg/person/day (Troschinetz & Mihelcic, 2009). This high rate of waste generation has great potential for reuse or recycling at source in order to reduce the volume of final disposal into landfill. One of the waste fraction that can be reused as compost or energy is organic waste (food/kitchen waste).
In general, solid waste in Indonesia has a high organic content of about 60.5?80% of the total waste generated (Damanhuri & Padmi, 2010; Aprilia et al., 2013). It is derived from municipal food waste, which has characteristics of high nitrogen and fat concentration, high pH and low humidity, which cause problems for its application in waste processing technology (Zarkadas et al., 2015). Moreover, domestic waste in Indonesia has a high organic content, which makes it suitable for anaerobic conditions with an organic loading rate (OLR) of around 3.2-32 kg COD/m3day (Metcalf & Eddy, 2014), and pH values ranging from 6.5?8.2 (Zhai et al., 2015); it would therefore be more effective to treat domestic waste with an anaerobic system.
Food waste degrades well and forms biogas due to optimum nutrition, temperature, pH and anaerobic conditions (Gomez et al., 2006). One of the widely used technologies for processing domestic waste is anaerobic digestion (AD). The main characteristic of AD is that it is specifically used to convert waste to energy from various biodegradable sources of organic solid waste. The AD process contributes efficiently to reducing waste and waste production (Metcalf & Eddy, 2014).
The performance of the dry anaerobic digestion food waste reactor had an average temperature of 28.38oC (mesophilic), and average pH of 6.5±0.06. The input of food waste substrate had a COD value of 218.98±9.9 g/L, which decreased at output to about 79.7±5.50 g/L. High COD concentrations indicate that the substrate used has the potential to be treated using an AD reactor. The addition of FOG waste to the dry AD reactor noticeably maintained average pH, although it was not significantly different in the first scenario, at about 6.3±0.03. In addition, the value of COD removal due to the addition of FOG waste was not significantly different, at about 88.4%. The average COD value at the inlet was higher than at the outlet during the addition of FOG waste, at about 230±1.4 g/L and 104±7.7 g/L respectively. The average VSD value in the first scenario was smaller than in the second, at about 77.6±1.46%, while the highest VSD was found in the second scenario, at about 89.3±1.55%. In addition, the COD removal of gas formation was found to be inversely proportional to biogas production. The AD operation in dry conditions with TS content was found to be greater than 15%. In this study, the addition of FOG waste did not produce any significant increase in biogas production at the initial stage, but at the end of the fourth day significant differences (according to the t-test statistic of p<0.05) were shown. This might have been caused by the fact that FOG waste has the property to behave as an inhibitor.
The authors would like
to thank the Directorate Research and Community Service Universitas Indonesia
for providing the International Indexed Publication Grants for Students’ Final Project
(Hibah PITTA) No. 824/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017. We would also like to thank M. Irpan
Sejati Tassakka for the valuable discussion and Septiana Kurnianingsih and
Ismail for the collaboration in feedstock loading.
Afifah, U., Priadi, C.R., 2017. Biogas Potential from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Faecal Sludge with Food Waste and Garden Waste. Renewable Energy Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development, AIP Conference Proceeding, Volume 1826, pp. 020032-1–020032-8
Aprilia, A., Tezuka, T., Spaargaren, G., 2013. Inorganic and Hazardous Solid Waste Management: Current Status and Challenges for Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, Volume 17, pp. 640–647
Curry, N., Pillay, P., 2012. Biogas Prediction and Design of a Food Waste to Energy System for the Urban Environment. Renewable Energy, Volume 41, pp. 200–209
Damanhuri, E., Padmi, T., 2010. Waste Management (Pengelolaan Sampah). Institut Teknologi Bandung (in Bahasa)
Davidsson, Å., Lövstedt, C., la Cour Jansen, J., Gruvberger, C., Aspegren, H., 2008. Co-digestion of Grease Trap Sludge and Sewage Sludge. Waste Management, Volume 28(6), pp. 986–992
Dioha, I.J., Ikeme, C.H., Nafi’u, T., Soba, N.I., Yusuf, M.B.S., 2013. Effect of Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio on Biogas Production. International Research Journal of Natural Sciences, Volume 1(3), pp. 1–10
Gómez, X.M., Cuetos, J., Cara, J., Morán, A., García, A.I., 2006. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Primary Sludge and the Fruit and Vegetable Fraction of the Municipal Solid Wastes: Conditions for Mixing and Evaluation of the Organic Loading Rate. Renewable Energy, Volume 31, pp. 2017–2024
Kabouris, J.C., Tezel, U., Pavlostathis, S.G., Engelmann, M., Dulaney, J., Gillette, R.A., Todd, A.C., 2009. Methane Recovery from the Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Sludge and FOG. Bioresource Technology, Volume 100(15), pp. 3701–3705
Kothari, R., Pandey, A.K., Kumar, S., Tyagi, V., Tyagi, S.K., 2014. Different Aspects of Dry Anaerobic Digestion for Bio-energy: An Overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 39, pp. 174–195
Kurnianingsih, S., Priadi, C.R., 2017. Pilot Scale Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste Process Performance under Various Mixing Intensities. In: Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Science, Mathematics, Environment and Education 2017
Marchaim, U., 1992. Biogas Processes for Sustainable Development. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 95, p. 38
Martín-González, L., Colturato, L.F., Font, X., Vicent, T., 2010. Anaerobic Co-digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste with FOG Waste from a Sewage Treatment Plant: Recovering a Wasted Methane Potential and Enhancing the Biogas Yield. Waste Management, Volume 30(10), pp. 154–1859
Metcalf & Eddy, 2014. Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Resource Recovery. Fifth-Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Tassakka, M.I.S., 2016. Optimization of Organic Waste Processing to Enhance Volatile Solid Destruction using Anaerobic Digestion. Case Study: Organic Waste Processing at Universitas Indonesia). Master Thesis. Environmental Engineering Study Program, Universitas Indonesia (in Bahasa)
Troschinetz, A.M., Mihelcic, J.R., 2009. Sustainable Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in Developing Countries. Waste Management, Volume 29(2), pp. 915–923
Tschobanoglous, G., 1993. Integrated Solid Waste Management – Engineering Principles and Management Issues. New York: McGraw-Hill
Zarkadas, I.S., Sofikiti, A.S., Voudrias, E.A., Pilidis, G.A., 2015. Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pasteurised Food Wastes and Dairy Cattle Manure in Batch and Large Volume Laboratory Digesters: Focussing on Mixing Ratios. Renewable Energy, Volume 80, pp. 432–440
Zhai, N., Zhang, T., Yin, D., Yang, G., Wang, X., Ren, G., Feng, Y., 2015. Effect of Initial pH on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Kitchen Waste and Cow Manure. Waste Management, Volume 38, pp. 126–131
Zhang, C., Xiao, G., Peng, L., Su, H., Tan, T., 2013.The Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Cattle Manure. Bioresource Technology, Volume 145, pp. 170–176