• Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Modeling of Smoke Control in Underground Parking-garage Fires

Beline Alianto, Nabila Astari, Darendra Nareshwara, Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho


Published at : 27 Dec 2017
IJtech : IJtech Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v8i7.779

Cite this article as:
Alianto, B., Astari, N., Nareshwara, D., Nugroho, Y.S., 2017. Modeling of Smoke Control in Underground Parking-garage Fires. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1296-1305
392
Downloads
Beline Alianto Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Nabila Astari Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Darendra Nareshwara Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
-
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

Smoke is the real threat in a fire in an enclosed, underground parking garage, and is a significant issue and very critical for firefighters dealing with fire. Special attention should be paid to fire safety, especially for those with multiple floors underground. A model of the smoke movement in a basement was established using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) 6.0 software. In this paper, the study undertaken used a basement model of 60 m (length) × 30 m (width) × 3 m (height) and has three typical floors. Smoke ventilation shafts were provided for the basement. A well-controlled liquid pool fire with a heat release rate (HRR) of 2 MW was used as an input parameter. The ventilation strategy was achieved through a mechanical exhaust fans and make-up air fans. The required ventilation was based on the air changing ten times per hour. The following parameters were varied: the location of the fire, the presence or absence of sprinklers, the presence or absence of a smoke-extraction system, the presence or absence of openings for incoming air, and the presence or absence of a jet fan and ducting. The impact of jet fans (induction type) was also addressed in several simulations. Smoke modeling was investigated under different fire scenarios. Simulations were conducted for smoke and heat control using forced, mechanical, horizontal ventilation. When the combination of a jet fan and ducting was applied, the fastest time for smoke removal was achieved compared to the other scenarios.

Basement ventilation; Fire; Jet fan; Mechanical fan; Smoke exhaust

Conclusion

Even though a fire in a basement is a rare event and such a fire may be initiated in numerous ways, it is important to provide sprinklers and mechanical ventilation in underground parking garages. Sprinklers are the vital components in an active fire protection system. When sprinkler activation does not occur, such as in a space with no sprinklers, the ambient ceiling temperatures are increased and the fire is allowed to continue to burn. In comparison, where there are no sprinklers applied and proper ventilation, the production of smoke exceeds the capacity for smoke extraction, which causes the whole basement to be filled by smoke. Even when sprinklers are provided, the absence of a smoke exhaust fan might lead to smoke remaining in the basement for a prolonged period of time, in spite of the fact that the fire is completely extinguished by the sprinklers. The provision of jet fans may result in migration of smoke that is faster than conventional ventilation without jet fans. This study showed that having sprinklers, make-up air fans, smoke-extraction fans, jet fans, and ductwork gives the fastest smoke-removal time in a basement fire.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Fire Safety Engineering Research Group and Thermodynamics Laboratory of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia for providing supports and great discussion.

References

Arini, D., Pancawardani, F., Santoso, M.A., Sugiarto, B., Nugroho, Y.S., 2017. Froude Modelling of Fire Phenomena: Observation of Fire-induced Smoke Movement in Basement Structure for Fire Fighting Purpose. Engineering Physics International Conference, EPIC 2016, Procedia Engineering, Volume 170, pp. 182–188

ASHRAE Handbook – Application, 2015. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. GA-Atlanta

BS 7346-7:2006. Components for Smoke and Heat Control Systems - Part 7: Code of Practice on Recommendations and Calculation Methods on Smoke and Heat Control Systems for Covered Car Parks, 2006. British Standards

Cheng, Y.P., John, R., 2002. Experimental Research of Motorcar Fire. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, Volume 31(6), pp. 557–560

Chow, W.K., 1998. On Safety Systems for Underground Car-parks. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Volume 13(3), pp. 281–287

CIBSE Guide B: Heating, Refrigerating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2005. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. London, UK

Deckers, X., Haga, S., Sette, B., Merci, B., 2013a. Smoke Control in Case of Fire in a Large Car Park: Full-scale Experiments. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 57, pp. 11–21

Deckers, X., Haga, S., Sette, B., Merci, B., 2013b. Smoke Control in Case of Fire in a Large Car Park: CFD Simulations of Full Scale Configurations. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 57, pp. 22–34

Enright, T., 2014. Impact of Jet Fan Ventilation Systems on Sprinkler Activation. Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1, pp. 1–7

Gao, R., Li, A., Hao, X., Lei, W., Deng, B., 2012. Prediction of the Spread of Smoke in a Huge Transit Terminal Subway Station under Six Different Fire Scenarios. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology Journal, Volume 31, pp. 128–138

Horvarth, I., Beeck, J.v., Merci, B., 2013. Full-scale and Reduced-scale Tests on Smoke Movement in Case of Car Park Fire. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 57, pp. 35–43

Hwang, C.C., Edwards, J.C., 2005. The Critical Ventilation Velocity in Tunnel Fires – A Computer Simulation. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 40, pp. 213–244

Ingason, H., Lonnermark, A., 2005. Heat Release Rates from Heavy Goods Vehicle Trailer Fires in Tunnels. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 40, pp.646–668

Lu, S., Wang, Y.H., Zhang, R.F., Zhang, H. P., 2011. Numerical Study on Impulse Ventilation for Smoke Control in an Underground Car Park. Procedia Engineering, Volume 11, pp. 369–378

Mangs, J., Keski-Rahkonen, O., 1994. Characterisation of the Fire Behaviour of a Burning Passenger Car. Part II: Parameterization of Measured Rate of Heat Release Curves. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 23, pp. 37–49

NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2013. National Fire Protection Association. 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA

Pangaribuan, A., Fadhil, Santoso, M.A., Nugroho, Y.S., 2016. Controlling Fire Growth in Electrical Cable Compartment by Reducing Oxygen Concentration at Horizontal Orientation. International Journal of Technology, Volume 7(2), pp.332–342

Shipp, M., Spearpoint, M., 1995. Measurements of the Severity of Fires Involving Private Vehicles. Fire and Materials, Volume 19, pp. 143–151

Sujatmiko, W., Dipojono, H.K., Soelami, F.X.N., Soegijanto, 2014. Performance Based Fire Safety Evacuation in High-rise Building Flats in Indonesia – A Case Study in Bandung. Procedia Environmental Sciences, Volume 20, pp. 116–125

Tilley, N., Deckers, X., Merci, B., 2012. CFD Study of Relation between Ventilation Velocity and Smoke Backlayering Distance in Large Closed Car Parks. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 48, pp. 11–20

Vauquelin, O., Telle, D., 2005, Definition and Experimental Evaluation of the Smoke “Confinement Velocity” in Tunnel Fires. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 40, pp. 320–330

Viegas, J.C., 2010. The Use of Impulse Ventilation for Smoke Control in Underground Car Parks. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Volume 25, pp. 42–53

Wu, F., Jiang, J., Zhou, R., Zhao, D., Shi, L., 2017. A New Natural Ventilation Method for Fire-induced Smoke Control in a Common Subway Station. International Journal of Ventilation, Volume 0(0), pp.1–18