• Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Stack Effect on Power Consumption of Refrigerated Containers in Storage Yards

Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Takeshi Shinoda

Cite this article as:
Budiyanto, M.A., Shinoda, T., 2017. Stack Effect on Power Consumption of Refrigerated Containers in Storage Yards. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1182-1190
Muhammad Arif Budiyanto Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia
Takeshi Shinoda Departement of Maritime Engineering, Kyushu University
Email to Corresponding Author


This paper investigates the stack effect on the power consumption of refrigerated containers. The investigation is based on measurement experimentation that was conducted in Hakata Island City Container Terminal, Fukuoka, Japan. Experimentation was carried out over summer 2015, using three stacks of high cube refrigerated containers. Several sensors and devices were employed to ascertain parameters, including pyranometers, thermocouples, and power analyzers. Five units of pyranometers were set on a horizontal and vertical plane, facing all cardinal directions. Thermocouples were installed inside and outside of walls at a total of twenty points. Power meters employed to measure energy consumption were set on the power plug station nearby the measurement object. Measurement results showed that the stacking position of refrigerated containers affects the distribution of surface temperatures and power consumption. The average surface temperatures obtained on the top tier, middle tier, and bottom tier were 45°C, 41°C and 38°C at noon, respectively. Consequently, the average power consumption from the top tier, middle tier, and bottom tier were shown as 7.7 kW, 7.4 kW and 7.5 kW, respectively. From these results it can be concluded that the stacking effect of containers provides thermal benefit to the power consumption of refrigerated containers that are located on the middle tier and bottom tier.

Container terminal; Green port; Refrigerated container; Solar radiation; Stack effect


This investigation of stack effect on reefer containers was conducted through measurement experimentation. Adequate equipment and procedures were utilized to collect parameter data of reefer containers, including surface temperature, air temperature, power consumption, and solar radiation. The measurement results clearly illustrate the stack effect of refrigerated containers influences temperature stratification in the container surfaces and causes different strata of energy consumption in each tier’s containers. The order of energy consumption in a stack of refrigerated containers, from highest to lowest consumption, are therefore top tier, bottom tier, and middle tier, respectively. Placing refrigerated containers in the middle position will garner the lowest energy than any other position. These results therefore illustrate that the proper arrangement of containers can aid container port operators in energy-saving strategies.


The authors would like to express our gratitude to the crews of Hakata Port Terminal Corporation for collaborative research in this experimentation, and for providing essential data during the research process, as well as suggestions for future related research. The authors would also like to extend thanks to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, and Department of Marine System Engineering, Kyushu University.


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