• Vol 8, No 8 (2017)
  • Chemical Engineering

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Material Obtained from Coconut Coir Dust by Hydrothermal and Pyrolytic Processes

cipta panghegar supriadi, Evvy Kartini, Wagiyo Honggowiranto, Kris Tri Basuki

Corresponding email: cipta255@gmail.com


Published at : 27 Dec 2017
IJtech : IJtech Vol 8, No 8 (2017)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v8i8.731

Cite this article as:
supriadi, C.P., Kartini, E., Honggowiranto, W., Basuki, K.T., 2017. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Material Obtained from Coconut Coir Dust by Hydrothermal and Pyrolytic Processes. International Journal of Technology. Volume 8(8), pp.1470-1478
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cipta panghegar supriadi - Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology (STTN - BATAN)
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Evvy Kartini Center for Science and Technology for Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Agency
Wagiyo Honggowiranto Center for Science and Technology for Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Agency
Kris Tri Basuki Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
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Since 2004, graphene has risen in popularity owing to its superior properties. However, limits to the scale of production methods have rendered graphene a costly material. Moreover, existing production methods require chemicals that are detrimental to the environment. This study uses Coconut Coir Dust (CCD) as a carbon precursor and an intermediate product in the manufacturing of graphene. Firstly, CCD sieved into a 100 mesh was carbonized using a hydrothermal method at temperatures of 235oC, 250oC, and 265oC, for 4 hours. Following this, the resulting solid residue was pyrolyzed at 1000oC for 2 hours under the protection of nitrogen (N2). The hydrothermal solid residue was labelled CHT (hydrothermal temperature) and the pyrolysis product was named as SP (hydrothermal temperature). Both samples were characterized using SEM, XRD and EDS. In addition, Raman characterization was conducted for SP samples. At the end of the process (SP), the XRD pattern showed two broad peaks centered around 2? ~24o and 44o corresponding to a (002) and (100) graphite plane. This pattern is similar to that of reduced-graphene oxide. SEM images showed a sheet-like microstructure is caused by undegraded lignin. A perforated and corrugated sheet formed after pyrolysis, which subsequently confirms the formation of reduced-graphene oxide. Furthermore, the Raman result indicates that higher hydrothermal temperatures lead to an increasing integrated ID/IG ratio. The ratios were 1.62, 1.71 and 1.77, for SP 235, SP 250, and SP 265, respectively. Research results conclude that the carbonaceous material formed through hydrothermal and pyrolytic processes contained a mixture of an amorphous-carbon form and a graphene-like cluster. Results additionally show a similar structure with reduced-graphene oxide.

Carbonization; Graphene; Hydrothermal; Pyrolysis; Reduced Graphene Oxide

Conclusion

Coconut coir dust exhibits a complex carbonization reaction when undergoing hydrothermal and pyrolytic treatment. The final carbon content for SP 235, SP 250, and SP 265 was ~93% atom. The crystal structure of carbon was furthermore determined by XRD, which illustrated the formation of a reduced-graphene oxide-like structure. The SEM images used in this paper confirm findings by showing the corrugated morphology of SP samples. For the purposes of comparison, commercial graphene was also tested using Raman, which showed a more nano-crystalline, graphene-like domain. Final investigations using Raman spectroscopy showed that SP 265 exhibited the smallest average crystallite size, with a more graphene-like domain being formed. However, this material requires further purification to separate graphene-like carbon and other amorphous carbon forms that are contained in the SP sample.

Acknowledgement

This research was funded by the Ministry Research Technology and Higher Education through the Konsorsium Sistem Inovasi Nasional Research Grant, with the contract no. 278/SP2H/LT/DRPM/III/2016. The facilities used in this study were supported by the Centre for Science and Technology for Advanced Materials and the National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia.

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