• Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
  • Metalurgy and Material Engineering

The Effect of Various Precursors and Solvents on the Characteristics of Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Conducting Glass Fabricated by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Tri Arini, Latifa Hanum Lalasari, Nofrijon Sofyan, Ghiska Ramahdita, Andaradhi Nararya, F. Firdiyono, Lia Andriyah, Achmad Subhan

Corresponding email: ahyuwono@eng.ui.ac.id


Published at : 27 Dec 2017
IJtech : IJtech Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v8i7.693

Cite this article as:
Yuwono, A.H., Arini, T., Lalasari, L.H., Sofyan, N., Ramahdita, G., Nararya, A., Firdiyono, F., Andriyah, L., Subhan, A., 2017. The Effect of Various Precursors and Solvents on the Characteristics of Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Conducting Glass Fabricated by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1336-1344
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Akhmad Herman Yuwono - Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia
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Tri Arini Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)-Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials
Latifa Hanum Lalasari Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)-Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials
Nofrijon Sofyan Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering-Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia
Ghiska Ramahdita Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering-Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia
Andaradhi Nararya Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering-Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia
F. Firdiyono Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)-Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials
Lia Andriyah Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)-Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials
Achmad Subhan Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI)
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
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Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass is one of most important components in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device. In addition to its high electrical conductivity, transparency is another important requirement that must be achieved in fabricating TCO. One TCO film is fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), which can be considered as the most promising substitution for indium-doped tin oxide (ITO), since the latter is very expensive. However, the fabrication techniques for TCO film need to be carefully selected; the synthesis parameters must be properly optimized to provide the desired properties. In this work, FTO glass has been fabricated by the ultrasonic spray pyrolisis technique with different precursors, i.e. tin (II) chloride dihydrate (SnCl2.2H2O) and anhydrous tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4), as well as different solvents, i.e. ethanol and methanol. For both conditions, ammonium fluoride (NH4F) was used as the doping compound. The resulting thin films were characterized by use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and a four-point probe test. The results of the investigation show that the highest transmittance of 88.3% and the lowest electrical resistivity of 8.44×10-5 ?.cm were obtained with the FTO glass processed with 20 minutes of spray pyrolysis deposition and 300oC substrate heating, using SnCl4 as the precursor and methanol as the solvent. It can be concluded that TCO fabrication with tin chloride precursors and ammonium fluoride doping using ultrasonic spray pyrolisis can be considered as a simple and low cost method, as well as a breakthrough in manufacturing conductive and transparent glass.

Ammonium fluoride doping; Anhydrous tin (IV) chloride precursor; Conductive glass; Electrical resistivity; Optical transmittance; Tin (II) chloride dihydrate precursor

Conclusion

On the basis of the investigation, it has been found that the use of different tin precursors and types of solvents during the spray pyrolysis technique using an ultrasonic nebulizer affected the characteristics of FTO films. In the case of the SnCl2.2H2O precursor, the use of an ethanol solvent produced better thin layer characteristics compared to the use of methanol. However, an opposite trend was observed for the SnCl4 precursor, where a better quality FTO film was obtained by using methanol instead of ethanol. The optimum value achieved in the study was shown by FTO film fabricated with SnCl4 precursor in a methanol solvent with an electrical resistivity value of 8.44×10-5 ?.cm and an optical transmittance value of 88.3%.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Research and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia for funding this research through an Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials 2016 Thematic Grant, as well as a PUPT Research Grant No.2725/UN2.R3.1/HKP05.00/2017.

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