|Helen Lavrenyuk||Department of Physics and Chemistry of Combustion, L’viv State University of Life Safety, L’viv UA-79007, Ukraine|
|Volodymyr-Petro Parhomenko||Department of Physics and Chemistry of Combustion, L’viv State University of Life Safety, L’viv UA-79007, Ukraine|
|Borys Mykhalichko||Department of Physics and Chemistry of Combustion, L’viv State University of Life Safety, L’viv UA-79007, Ukraine|
Making technology of copper(II)-coordinated epoxy-amine composites with reduced combustibility has been developed that allowed to form the basis of a new type of polymer with enhanced physicochemical and mechanical properties to improve the process of pouring polymer floors. A proposed simple method allows preparing and incorporating into the epoxy resin matrix the fire retardant-hardeners. These are considered to be the interaction products of the polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA) with inorganic copper(II) salts (specifically, CuSO4, (CuOH)2CO3 and CuSiF6). The combustibility of the DGEBA/PEPA, DGEBA/PEPA-CuSO4, (DGEBA/PEPA)2-(CuOH)2CO3 and DGEBA/PEPA-CuSiF6 composites obtained (DGEBA is bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) were investigated using ceramic tube (CT) method. The flammability of the polymer samples has been evaluated using the UL94 test method according to ASTM 635–14 and ASTM D1929–16. The physical-mechanical properties were determined by considering surface hardness, tensile strength, water absorption, and chemical resistance. The effects of inorganic salts of copper(II) on the fire-hazardous indices and the performance properties of the modified epoxy-amine composites were described. The results of the CT study reveal that the maximum temperature of gases produced through combustion is appreciably decreased, along with weight loss, for modified epoxy-amine composites compared to unmodified composites. The modified polymer composites are attributed to the medium flammability substance class and can be successfully used to pour polymer floors.
Fire-hazardous indices; Performance properties; Pouring polymer floors; Self-extinguishing epoxy-amine composites
Polymer coatings for floors have become increasingly popular when repairing or decorating because their pouring requires less time and effort when compared to known coatings (Subagia et al., 2017), such as concrete, linoleum, glaze, etc. Moreover, the polymer coatings are of increased resistance to corrosive agents, enhanced impact strength, a higher wearing capacity, and greater chemical resistance to corrosive agents (acids, alkalis, solvents, etc.).
Currently, epoxy-amine composites are considered to be the best polymer coatings for floors. These coatings can be used in most industries (Lavrenyuk, 2012). Coatings based on epoxy resins are unique because they improve flooring properties, viz., have greater solidity, higher abrasion resistance, and absolute water impermeability. Aside from these structural improvements, the polymer coatings improve aesthetics. However, epoxy-polymers are of one significant disadvantage, this is their natural combustibility. All organic polymers are flammable substances (Turekova et al., 2013). Therefore, a major priority is the creation of a new generation of epoxy-amine composites that would possess the reduced combustibility and satisfactory performance properties for pouring polymer floors. Using reactive fire retardant agents would solve this problem, since these substances are able to physically and chemically interact with both epoxy resin and curing agents. Substances of this kind include some transition metal salts, which bond readily with curing agents containing amines to form chelate complexes. These d-metal chelate complexes can act as fire retardant-hardeners that would efficiently reduce the combustibility of epoxy-amine composites. To solve this problem, the authors of works (Ghaemy et al., 2003; Tian et al., 2004; Giroux et al., 2005; Nie et al., 2008; Mohamed & Al-Halim, 2008; Zhang et al., 2009; Hou et al., 2017) have focused on the use of the organic salts of d-metals (mostly Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) Unlike organic salts, inorganic salts are non-combustible. That is why our work developing epoxy-amine composites (Lavrenyuk et al., 2015; Lavrenyuk & Mykhalichko, 2015; Lavrenyuk et al., 2016?; Lavrenyuk et al., 2018a; Lavrenyuk et al., 2018b) has used chelate complexes composed of exclusively inorganic salts from copper(II) and polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA).
In this study, we report the development of novel copper(II)-coordinated epoxy-amine composites with reduced combustibility containing different inorganic salts of copper(II) (specifically, CuSO4, (CuOH)2CO3, and CuSiF6). The composites elaborated are considered to be the basis for pouring polymer floors. Combustibility was investigated using the ceramic tube (CT) method, and flammability was evaluated using UL94 tests. Physical-mechanical properties of the samples were studied by considering the measurements of surface hardness, tensile strength, water absorption, and chemical resistance. The influence of complex formation processes on the fire-hazardous indices and performance characteristics of the obtained epoxy-amine composites is also considered in this work.
Copper(II)?coordinated epoxy?amine composites with suppressed combustibility – DGEBA/DETA-CuSO4, (DGEBA/PEPA)2-(CuOH)2CO3, and DGEBA/DETA-CuSiF6 – were developed. The combustibility of these polymer samples was characterized using the ceramic tube method. The flame propagation rates and ignition point and self-ignition point were evaluated using UL94 tests. The physical-mechanical properties were determined by considering surface hardness, tensile strength, water absorption, and chemical resistance. The influence of the inorganic salts of copper(II) on the fire-hazardous indices and performance properties of the modified epoxy-amine composites was considered. It has been ascertained that the Cu(II)–(PEPA) interaction that triggers the formation of the Cu(II)–N coordination bonds within the polymer framework predetermines the suppressing combustibility of the copper(II)-coordinated epoxy?amine polymers. The study’s results for the combustibility of the copper(II)-coordinated epoxy?amine polymers enable us to attribute these samples to the medium flammability substance class, and these can be successfully used for pouring polymer floors.
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