|Muhammad Suryanegara||Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Ruki Harwahyu||Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Muhamad Asvial||Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Eko Adhi Setiawan|
|Eny Kusrini||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
Shortly after the invention of the steam engine, which revolutionized industry at the end of the nineteenth century, technology was perceived as having only two possible roles: technology was created to comply with market demand or was generated to create markets. These two roles mark the first- and second-generation innovation models that changed the world drastically in the twentieth century. Along with technological advancement in various fields, technology now no longer has the option of two such distinct roles, but rather it exists as a function of the co-evolution between technology and ecosystems outside the technology itself. Technology continues to develop as an interplay of these relations. The most obvious example is the rapid development of Information Communication Technology (ICT), which began with the invention of technology to deliver voice communication (thanks to Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone). ICT has now been transformed into an “any technological platform,” delivering any information over sort of communications technology. The crucial point of the development of ICT was the emergence of the Internet in the late 1970s. Initially, the Internet platform emerged as a military necessity to fragment data communication patterns so that the potential damage to one communication line did not damage the entire communication system. But the ecosystem turned out to require more than just that motivation. The Internet was adopted by non-military industries, educational institutions, and the household. On the basis of this adoption, the ecosystem required continuous development until Internet technology became what we experience today. The Internet has become a prerequisite for the formation of quality people with an orientation toward improving the quality of the human economy.
The development of ICT is what ultimately leads us to the industrial revolution era 4.0, which we face today. With possibilities offered by the sophistication of ICT technology (especially the utilization of the Internet platform), the efficiency of industrial processes becomes a necessity pursued by every business entity. ICT technology is no longer regarded as an enabler of economic activity, but rather it is becoming increasingly specific, enabling industrial process efficiency and strengthening the competitiveness of products, which, in turn, eventually lead to the empowerment of society.
Like a co-evolution process, the need for sophisticated ICT technology continues to grow, creating the need for platforms to support process efficiency and productivity, such as sensor platforms, Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, and robotics automation. Regardless of the technology developed, the industrial revolution era 4.0 has led to a desire to create new innovations that provide economic benefits to the community. Yet, such a technological perspective is applied not only for the ICT-related theme, but also the non-ICT one.