• Vol 9, No 6 (2018)
  • Mechanical Engineering

An Experimental Study of the Vapor Temperature in the Reaction Zone for Producing Liquid from Camphor Wood in a Non-sweeping Gas Fixed-bed Pyrolysis Reactor

Nasruddin A Abdullah, Jordy Tila, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Nandy Putra, Raldi A Koestoer

Corresponding email: nandyputra@eng.ui.ac.id


Published at : 07 Dec 2018
IJtech : IJtech Vol 9, No 6 (2018)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v9i6.2356

Cite this article as:
Abdullah, N.A., Tila, J., Hakim, I.I., Putra, N., Koestoer, R.A., 2018. An Experimental Study of the Vapor Temperature in the Reaction Zone for Producing Liquid from Camphor Wood in a Non-sweeping Gas Fixed-bed Pyrolysis Reactor . International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(6), pp. 1236-1245
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Nasruddin A Abdullah Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Jordy Tila Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Imansyah Ibnu Hakim Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Nandy Putra Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Raldi A Koestoer Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
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The liquids produced by the pyrolysis process with biomass as the raw material are popularly called bio-oil. The reaction zone temperature in the pyrolysis process affects the liquid yield in a non-sweeping gas fixed-bed reactor. This research aims to obtain the effect of temperature in the reaction zone on the liquid yield. Camphor wood was fed into the reactor as raw material. An electric heater was controlled using the proportional integral differential (PID) controller to keep the reactor temperature constant at 500°C as an optimum decomposition temperature. To control the vapor temperature in the reaction zone, an electric heater was mounted on the wall of the reaction zone, which was equipped with a PID controller to keep the temperature constant. To convert the pyrolysis vapor into liquid, a double pipe condenser was used in the system. This study showed that the liquid yield increases as the vapor temperature increases. The rise in vapor temperature from an ambient temperature to 200°C increases the liquid yield 17.0 wt% with a low heating rate, 5 wt% with a heating rate of 8°C/minute and 4.5 wt% with a heating rate of 17°C/minute. Early condensation occurred due to the low temperature of the vapor at the reaction zone.

Camphor wood; Fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor; Liquid yield; Reaction zone; Vapor temperature

Introduction

Processing wood waste and plant material into a useful product can reduce environmental problems. Camphor wood (Dryobalanops lanceolate) is widely available in Indonesia and can be used as an industrial material. Wood waste increases along with the increase in production. This wood waste can be converted into a liquid product. The pyrolysis process is commonly used to convert biomass into bio-oil (Demirba?, 2001).  The reactor is an important tool needed to produce bio-oil and the type of reactor affects the yield of liquid produced (Guedes et al., 2018). Fixed-bed reactors have been widely used in research on the pyrolysis process (Liu et al., 2012; Mohamed et al., 2014; Bordoloi et al., 2016; Garg et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Abdullah et al., 2018). Some operational variables affect the liquid yield and the composition of bio-oil, such as the reaction temperature (Tsai et al., 2007; Uçar & Karagöz, 2009; Butler et al., 2011), the vapor resident times (Scott et al., 1999; Azizi et al., 2018), the size of the feed particles (Demiral & ?ensöz, 2006; Aylón et al., 2008; Lédé & Authier, 2015), the biomass heating rates (Salehi et al., 2009; Sukiran et al., 2009; Kabir et al., 2017), the effect of sweeping gas (Uzun et al., 2006; Zeng et al., 2017), the effect of the biomass type, the influence of mineral matter/metal ions, and the effect of the initial moisture content of the biomass (Akhtar & Amin, 2012).

The low pressure and low temperature result in early condensation of the hot vapor on the inside walls of the reaction zone.  The use of sweeping gas in the pyrolysis process for purging pyrolysis vapor shortens the residence time in the reaction zone. Rapid cooling of the vapor is needed to increase liquid yield (Encinar et al., 2000). Demiral et al. (2012) reported the increasing liquid yield due to the increasing of the pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 500°C. The vapor produced by the reactor flows into the reaction zone; in this reaction zone, the vapor must go through a liquid collection system (LCS) to change the phase from a vapor into a liquid. The vapor pressure is affected by the partial pressure of each compound. To purge the vapor from the reaction into the LCS, sweeping gas is injected into the system. The use of sweeping gas purges the hot vapor rapidly and maximizes the liquid yield. The effect of the sweeping gas influences the residence time of vapor in the reaction zone because it transports the vapor to the LCS immediately. The vapor chamber was used to increase the cooling process (Hasnan et al., 2017). The pressure in the reaction zone is quite low due to its low temperature. Water vapor, N2, and Ar are commonly used as the sweeping gas. Nitrogen is frequently chosen due to its cheapness (Uzun et al., 2006). The use of nitrogen as a sweeping gas would incur additional operating costs and an additional process.

Many papers have discussed and analyzed the influence of the decomposition temperature, the type of reactor, the particle size, pyrolysis type, sweeping gas, heating rate, but few discuss the vapor resident time

Conclusion

The influence of the temperature in the reaction zone on the liquid produced has been investigated for a non-sweeping gas fixed-bed reactor that used camphor as the feedstock. With a 1000-Watt reactor heating supply, increasing the wall temperature up to 200°C caused a 12.5 wt% increase in the liquid yield. For a 1500-Watt reactor heating supply, increasing the wall temperature up to 200°C caused a 5 wt% increase in the liquid yield and a 4.5 wt% increase occurred with a 2000-Watt heating supply. The lower product yield at a low heating rate and at uncontrolled surface temperature was influenced by the low vapor temperature in the reaction zone. The highest liquid yield of 46 wt% was obtained with a 1500-Watt heating supply and when the wall temperature was 200°C in the reaction zone. Because of its high boiling point, the vapor condensed early on the wall of the reactor when the vapor was at a low temperature. 
 

Acknowledgement

The authors wanted to express gratitude to DRPM Universitas Indonesia and Kemenristek Dikti for funding this research through the “Hibah PTUPT” scheme.

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