• Vol 9, No 5 (2018)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Measurement and Prediction of the Density and Viscosity of Biodiesel Blends

Minh Tuan Pham, Anh Tuan Hoang, Anh Tuan Le, Abdel Rahman M.Said Al-Tawaha, Van Huong Dong, Van Vang Le


Cite this article as:
Pham, M.T., Hoang, A.T., Le, A.T., Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Dong, V.H., Le, V.V., 2018. Measurement and Prediction of the Density and Viscosity of Biodiesel Blends . International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(5), pp. 105-1026
32
Downloads
Minh Tuan Pham Hanoi University of Science and Technology
Anh Tuan Hoang Ho Chi Minh city University of Transport
Anh Tuan Le Hanoi University of Science and Technology
Abdel Rahman M.Said Al-Tawaha Al-Hussein bin Talal University
Van Huong Dong Ho Chi Minh city University of Transport
Van Vang Le Ho Chi Minh city University of Transport
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

Biodiesel has been considered as the potential fuel type with many advantages such as environmental pollution reduction, no sulfur production, and biodegradation. However, disadvantages of biodiesel such as high viscosity and high density affected diesel engines and fuel systems negatively. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the viscosity and density of biodiesel fuel in unmodified diesel engines. Until now, a large number of empirical correlations have been used to predict the viscosity and density of biodiesel–fossil diesel fuel blend This study was conducted to predict the kinematic viscosity and density of blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel. Three types of biodiesel were examined: Coconut oil-based biodiesel (COB), Jatropha oil-based biodiesel (JOB), and Waste oil-based biodiesel (WOB). Twenty-four samples of the three types of biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were created by blending 5% (B5), 10% (B10), 20% (B20), 40% (B40), 50% (B50), 60% (B60), 75% (B75), and 100% (B100) of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel to produce the corresponding blends for experimental purposes. Experimental correlations and mathematical equations for predicting the relationship between the kinematic viscosity and the density of the biodiesel–fossil diesel fuel blends, the dependence of the kinematic viscosity and the density of the biodiesel–fossil diesel fuel blends on biodiesel fractions, and the effects of temperature on the kinematic viscosity and density of pure biodiesel were developed. The results of the experimental correlation data were near the predicted mathematical equation with a confidence level of 95%.

Biodiesel; Biodiesel fraction; Density; Kinematic viscosity; Temperature

Conclusion

In this work, a dual model based on temperatures and volume fractions to estimate the density and kinematic viscosity of pure biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel fuel blends was developed. Three types of biodiesel, COB, JOB, and WOB, were used in both experiments. The main results are summarized as follows:

The density and kinematic viscosity of pure biodiesel were inversely proportional to temperature, whereas the density and kinematic viscosity of biodiesel–diesel fuel blend increased as the volume fractions of the biodiesel increased. Empirical equations with high confidence levels were established.

The results showed R2 = 0.9979 in predicting the dependence of the density of pure biodiesel on temperature and R2 = 0.9844 in predicting the dependence of the density of biodiesel–diesel fuel blends on volume fractions. Similarly, the results showed R2 = 0.9942 and R2 = 0.9957 in predicting kinematic viscosity. In the experimental results and the model, the relationship between density and kinematic viscosity was R2 = 0.9961.

References

Abubakar, H., Abdulkareem, A., Jimoh, A., Agbajelola, O., Okafor, J., Afolabi, E., 2016. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 38(16), pp. 2355-2361

Albuquerque, M.C.G., Machado, Y.L., Torres, A.E.B., Azevedo, D.C.S., Cavalcante, C.L.-Jr., Firmiano, L.R., Parente, E.J.S.-Jr., 2009. Properties of Biodiesel Oils Formulated using Different Biomass Sources and Their Blends. Renewable Energy, Volume 34(3), pp. 857-859

Aliyah, A.N., Edelweiss, E.D., Sahlan, M., Wijanarko, A., Hermansyah, H., 2016. Solid State Fermentation using Agroindustrial Wastes to Produce Aspergillus Niger Lipase as a Biocatalyst Immobilized by an Adsorption-crosslinking Method for Biodiesel Synthesis. International Journal of Technology, Volume 7(8), pp. 1393-1404

Anh Tuan, L., Minh Tuan, P., 2009. Impacts of Gasohol E5 and E10 on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of In-used Motorcycle and Car: A Case Study in Vietnam. Journal of Science and Technology (Technical Universities), Volume 73, pp. 98-104

Bhale, P.V., Deshpande, N.V., Thombre, S.B., 2009. Improving the Low Temperature Properties of Biodiesel Fuel. Renewable Energy, Volume 34(3), pp. 794-800

Camas-Anzueto, J.L., Gómez-Pérez, J., Meza-Gordillo, R., Anzueto-Sánchez, G., Pérez-Patricio, M., López-Estrada, F.R., Abud-Archila, M., Ríos-Rojas, C., 2017. Measurement of the Viscosity of Biodiesel by using an Optical Viscometer. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Volume 54, pp. 82-87

CEN., 2008. Automotive Fuels - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) for Diesel Engines - Requirements and Test Methods. EN 14214:2008, European Committee for Standardization, Brussel, Belgium

 

Chavarria-Hernandez, J.C., Pacheco-Catalán, D.E., 2014. Predicting the Kinematic Viscosity of Fames and Biodiesel: Empirical Models. Fuel, Volume 124, pp. 212-220

Esteban, B., Riba, J.-R., Baquero, G., Rius, A., Puig, R., 2012. Temperature Dependence of Density and Viscosity of Vegetable Oils. Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 42, pp. 164-171

Fasina, O., Colley, Z., 2008. Viscosity and Specific Heat of Vegetable Oils as a Function of Temperature: 35°C to 180°C. International Journal of Food Properties, Volume 11(4), pp. 738-746

Gülüm, M., Bilgin, A., 2017. Measurements and Empirical Correlations in Predicting Biodiesel-Diesel Blends’ Viscosity and Density. Fuel, Volume 199, pp. 567-577

Hoang, A.T., 2017. The Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled Diesel Oil in Comparison with Heated Pure Vegetable Oils Available in Vietnam. Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 10(2), pp. 93-103

Hoang, T.A., Le, V.V., 2017. The Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel Oil, Biodiesel and Preheated Coconut Oil. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 6(1), pp. 1-7

Hoang, A.T., Nguyen, V.T., 2017. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Preheated Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel. Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 146(4), pp. 475-482

Hoang, A.T., 2018. Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engines Based on Organic Rankine Cycle. Applied Energy, Volume 231, pp. 138-166

Hoang, A.T., Le, A.T., 2018. A Review on Deposit Formation in the Injector of Diesel Engines Running on Biodiesel. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects. Available online at: https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2018.1520342, Accessed on 22 September 2018

Hoang, A.T, Noor, M.M, Pham, X.D., 2018. Comparative Analysis on Performance and Emission Characteristic of Diesel Engine Fueled with Heated Coconut Oil and Diesel Fuel. International Journal of Automotive & Mechanical Engineering, Volume 15(1), pp. 5110-5125

Hoang, A.T., Pham, V.V., 2018. A Study of Emission Characteristic, Deposits, and Lubrication Oil Degradation of a Diesel Engine Running on Preheated Vegetable Oil and Diesel Oil. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects. Available online at: https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2018.1520344, Accessed on 26 September 2018

Kanaveli, I.-P., Atzemi, M., Lois, E., 2017. Predicting the Viscosity of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends. Fuel, Volume 199, pp. 248-263

Le Anh Tuan, Pham Huu Tuyen, Van Dinh Son Tho. 2017. Alternative fuels for internal combustion engine. Bach khoa Publishing House

Leong, S.K., Lam, S.S., Ani, F.N., Ng, J.-H., Chong, C.T., 2016. Production of Pyrolyzed Oil from Crude Glycerol using a Microwave Heating Technique. International Journal of Technology, Volume 7(2), pp. 323-331

Liu, R., Li, C., Zhang, H., Xiao, Z., Zhang, A., Chen J., 2017. Pilot-scale Study of Esterification of Waste Oil for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 39(1), pp. 29-35

Marengo, E., Longo, V., Bobba, M., Robotti, E., Zerbinati, O., Di Martino, S., 2009. Butene Concentration Prediction in Ethylene/Propylene/1-Butene Terpolymers by FT-IR Spectroscopy through Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks. Talanta, Volume 77(3), pp. 1111-1119

Montgomery, D.C., Peck, E.A., Vining, G.G. 2012. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA

Rajagopal, K., Bindu, C., Prasad, R., Ahmad, A., 2016. The Effect of Fatty Acid Profiles of Biodiesel on Key Fuel Properties of Some Biodiesels and Blends. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 38(11), pp. 1582-1590

Saxena, P., Jawale, S., Joshipura, M.H., 2013. A Review on Prediction of Properties of Biodiesel and Blends of Biodiesel. Procedia Engineering, Volume 51, pp. 395-402

Suryantoro, M.T., Sugiarto, B., Chistian, D., Samudra, B., Gusfa, Z., 2016. Deposit Characterization of a Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber by Droplets at Hot Chamber Temperature: Effect of Temperature on Evaporation Time and Deposit Structure. International Journal of Technology, Volume 7(8), pp. 1373-1381

Tat, M.E., Van Gerpen, J.H., 2000. The Specific Gravity of Biodiesel and Its Blends with Diesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Volume 77(2), pp. 115-119

Tesfa, B., Mishra, R., Gu, F., Powles, N., 2010. Prediction Models for Density and Viscosity of Biodiesel and Their Effects on Fuel Supply System in CI Engines. Renewable Energy, Volume 35(12), pp. 2752-2760

Tran, V.D., Le, A.T., Dong, V.H., Hoang, A.T., 2017. Methods of Operating the Marine Engines by Ultra-Low Sulfur Fuel to Aiming to Satisfy MARPOLAnnex VI. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, Volume 11(12), pp. 34-40

Yang, C., He, K., Xue, Y., Li, Y., Lin, H., Sheng H., 2018. Factors affecting the Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Esters. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 40(5), pp. 516-522

Yang, C., Zhang, B., Cui, C., Wu, J., Ding, Y., Wu Y., 2016. Standards and Protocols for Characterization of Algae-Based Biofuels. Trends in Renewable Energy, Volume 2(2), pp. 56-60