• Vol 7, No 1 (2016)
  • Civil Engineering

The Dynamic Response of Unsaturated Clean Sand at a Very Low Frequency

Rini Kusumawardani, Kabul Basah Suryolelono, Bambang Suhendro, Ahmad Rifa’i

Corresponding email: rini.kusumawardani@mail.unnes.ac.id


Published at : 30 Jan 2016
IJtech : IJtech Vol 7, No 1 (2016)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v7i1.1163

Cite this article as:

Kusumawardani, R., Suryolelono, K.B., Suhendro, B., Rifa’i, A., 2016. The Dynamic Response of Unsaturated Clean Sand at a Very Low Frequency. International Journal of Technology. Volume 7(1), pp. 123-131

213
Downloads
Rini Kusumawardani Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kampus Sekaran, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
Kabul Basah Suryolelono Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Kampus UGM, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55581, Indonesia
Bambang Suhendro Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Kampus UGM, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55581, Indonesia
Ahmad Rifa’i Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Kampus UGM, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55581, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

A series of cyclic triaxial tests at very low frequency was carried out on unsaturated clean sand in order to quantitatively investigate the influence of the degree of saturation on dynamic response. The conventional triaxial testing apparatus, which is usually used on saturated soil, was employed to test the unsaturated soil with the additional pore air pressure controller. During the series of tests, four different degrees of saturation level (Sr = 55%, 70%, 85%, 98%) were applied to the soil specimen based on a single value of effective confining pressure (?’3). The results revealed that the application of cyclic loading at a very low frequency occurring continuously triggered the decrease of soil resistance. For degree saturation, Sr = 55% revealed that the resistance of soil was stronger in comparison to another level. Furthermore, the experimental results confirmed that applied cyclic loading induced a change in saturation level before and after testing. In addition, at a certain level of saturation, a phenomenon of settlements was likely to occur and the soil specimen then underwent liquefaction.

Unsaturated clean sand, Undrained cyclic triaxial testing, Cyclic shear strain

References

Atkinson, J.H., 2014. Fundamental of Ground Engineering, Taylor & Francais Group, England

Bian, H., Shahrour, I., 2009. Numerical Model for Unsaturated Sandy Soils under Cyclic Loading: Application to Liquefaction. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 29, pp. 237–244

Bishop, A.W., 1959. The Principle of Effective Stress, Tecknisk Ukeflad

Das, B., 1992. Principle of Soil Dynamics, PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Boston

Dobry, R., Alvarez, L., 1967. Seismic Failures of Chilean Tailing Dams. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Volume 102(9), pp. 909–927

Gupta, M.K., Agrawal, R.C., 1998. Seismotectonic and Liquefaction Studies of an Industrial Site in Northern India. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 17, pp. 349–355

Fredlund, D.G., Rahardjo, H., 1993. Soil Mechanics and Unsaturated Soil, John Willey & Son, Inc., USA

Karaka?, A., Coruk, ?., 2007. Liquefaction Analysis of Young Sediments in Western Part of Itzmit Basin. In: the Proceeding of International Earthquake Symposium Kocaeli 2007, pp. 494–498

Kazama, M., Uno, T., 2007. Earthquake-induced Mudflow Mechanism from a Viewpoint of Unsaturated Soil Dynamics, Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, Springer Proceeding in Physics, Volume 112 (part VII), pp. 437–444

Kramer, S.L., 1996. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA

Orense, R.P., Yoshimoto, N., Hyodo, M., 2012. Cyclic Shear Behavior and Seismic Response of Partially Saturated Slopes. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 42, pp. 71–79

Pastor, M., Manzanal, D., Fernández Merodo, J.F., Mira, P., Blanc, T., Drempetic, V., Pastor, M.J., Haddad, B., Sanchez, M., 2010. From Solids to Fluidized Soils: Diffuse Failure Mechanisms in Geostructures with Applications to Fast Catastrophic Landslides. Journal of Granular Matter, Volume 12, pp. 211–228

Prakash, S., Puri, V.K., 2010. Recent Advances in Liquefaction of Fine Grained Soils. In: the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics and Symposium in Honor of Professor M. Idriss, May 24-29, San Diego, California, USA

Sitharam, S.G., GovindaRaju, L., Sridharan, A., 2004. Dynamics Properties and Liquefaction Potential of Soils. Journal of Current Science, Volume 87(10), pp. 1370–1378

Skempton, A.W., 1960. Terzaghi’s Discovery of Effective Stress, from Theory to Practice in Soil Mechanics – Selections from the writings of Karl Terzaghi, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 42–53

Unno, T., Kazama, M., Uzuoka, R., Sento, N., 2006. Change of Moisture and Suction Properties of Volcanic Sand Induced by Shaking Disturbance. Journal of Soils and Foundations, Volume 46(4), pp. 519–528

Vucetic, M., Dobry, R., 1991. Effect of Soil Plasticity on Cyclic Response. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 117(1), pp. 89-107

Wu, A., Sun, Y., 2008. Granular Dynamic Theory and Its Application. Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, China

Wulfsohn, D., Adams, B.A., Fredlund, D.G., 1998. Triaxial Testing of Unsaturated Agricultural Soils. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Volume 69, pp. 317–330


Table of Contents