• Vol 6, No 7 (2015)
  • Metalurgy and Material Engineering

Analysis of Oxide Inclusions on Medical Grade 316L Stainless Steel using Local Raw

I Nyoman Jujur, Joni Sah, Agustanhakri Bakri, Agus Hadi S. Wargadipura


Cite this article as:

Jujur, I.N., & Sah, J.Bakri, A., Wargadipura, A.H.S., 2018. Analysis of Oxide Inclusions on Medical Grade 316L Stainless Steel using Local Raw. International Journal of Technology. Volume 6(7), pp.1184-1190

78
Downloads
I Nyoman Jujur Center for Materials Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Kawasan Puspiptek, Gedung 224, Tangerang Selatan – Banten 15314, Indonesia
Joni Sah Center for Materials Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Kawasan Puspiptek, Gedung 224, Tangerang Selatan – Banten 15314, Indonesia
Agustanhakri Bakri Center for Materials Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Kawasan Puspiptek, Gedung 224, Tangerang Selatan – Banten 15314, Indonesia
Agus Hadi S. Wargadipura Center for Materials Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Kawasan Puspiptek, Gedung 224, Tangerang Selatan – Banten 15314, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

The type of stainless steel that is most commonly used in bone implants is austenitic 316L stainless steel, which has an excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The Center for Materials Technology, BPPT, in cooperation with a local industry, is currently undertaking research into integrating, refining and alloying processes for the production of medical grade 316L stainless steel, using raw material originating from the ferronickel of Pomalaa. Natural resources of ferronickel, one of the main raw materials for stainless steel, are locally available in Indonesia. Other alloy metals such as steel scrap, ferro chrome and ferro molybdenum are bought in the market. The charging calculation is done by computer-aided simulation, before the melting processes are carried out. The melting facility used is an induction furnace of 250 kg capacity, following the procedures commonly used in the industry. Chemical composition analysis is done by a spectrophotometer. Tensile and hardness tests are conducted, and a microstructure observation is also carried out using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The selection of raw material inputs and refining and annealing processes affect the quality of the alloy. In our study, we found various forms of oxide inclusions in the stainless steel microstructure: triangular, hexagonal and spherical. The tensile strength of the specimen of 316L stainless steel casting materials was influenced by the presence of oxide phases.

Bone implant, Ferronickel, Medical grade 316L stainless steel, Oxide inclusions

References

Ahmadi, S., Hadavi, S.M.M., Shokuhfar, A., 2006. Evaluation of Deoxidation Process in Medical Grade 316l Stainless Steel. International Journal of Iron and Steel Society of Iran, Volume 3(2), pp. 22–28

Durowoju, M.O., Onawumi, A.S., Oladose, K.O., 2012. Fractal Analysis of the Pores in Aisi 316l Ss Implanted with Oxygen and Helium Ions. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Volume 10(2), pp. 247–258

Gang, L., Jingshe, L., Shufeng, Y., Yanjie, W., Naisong, L., 2011. Study on the Cleanliness of 316L Stainless Steel. Advanced Materials Research, Volume 311–313, pp. 881–885

Godec, M., 2011. Material Failure of an Aisi 316l Stainless Steel Hip Prosthesis. Materials and Technology, Volume 45(2), pp. 85–90

Hongans, H.U., Nam, S.W., 2003. Improvement of Creep-fatigue Life by the Modification of Carbide Characteristics through Grain Boundary Serration in an AISI 304 Stainless Steel. Journal of Materials Science, Volume 38, pp. 1535–1542

ISO 5832-1, Implants for Surgery–Metallic Materials, Part 1: Wrought Stainless Steel. International for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland

Laing, P.G., 1979. Clinical Experience with Prosthetic Materials’ Historical Perspectives, Current Problems, and Future Directions, Corrosions and Degradations of Implant Materials. Astm Stp 684. B.C. Syrett and A. Acharya, Eds. American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 199–211

Schaeffler, A.L., 1949. Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal. Metal Progress, Volume 56(11), pp. 680–680

Suhendra, N., 2005. Analysis of Mechanical and Thermal Responses of Total Hip Joint Replacement Acetabular Components using Fem Models. In: Semiloka Teknologi. 22 November 2005. Jakarta, Indonesia. Pusat Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Informasi dan Elektronika, BPPT

Winters, G.I., Nutt, M.J., 2003. Stainless Steel for Medical and Surgical Applications, ASM Int., New York, (2003), 3