|Mohammed Ali Berawi||Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok,16424, Indonesia|
Innovation is often driven by a need for continuous improvement. New technologies evolve from conceptual breakthroughs, which lead to a series of innovative processes designed to produce an end product, to succeed or to fail in commercial markets, or even to further newly discovered technological needs. Technology is a process of creation that is underpinned by scientific theory from modeling to modifying and from predicting to producing end results. Creating design breakthroughs, improving processes, and adding new features all become means for enhancing the competitive value of technology. To achieve technological breakthroughs, needs are first translated into a list of functional requirements and design specifications. The design parameters are combined and amended to create a blueprint of end results. Prototyping and testing are often conducted through several iterations that lead to improvements in the design and process parameters. The process of choosing optimal design requirements, parameters, and measurement procedures requires a rational method that must be formulated to improve the process and/or end result. Efficiency, safety, and sustainability are often sought in order to optimize the end result of a technological process or product performance.