• Vol 9, No 1 (2018)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Taguchi- Grey Relation Based Multi-Response Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters with Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel

Suresh Vellaiyan, K.S. Amirthagadeswaran, Dinesh Babu Sivasamy

Publish at : 27 Jan 2018 - 00:00
IJtech : IJtech Vol 9, No 1 (2018)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v9i1.1374

Cite this article as:

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., Sivasamy, D.B.., 2018. Taguchi- Grey Relation Based Multi-Response Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters with Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(1), pp.68-77

Suresh Vellaiyan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Haramaya Institute of Technology, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
K.S. Amirthagadeswaran Department of Mechanical Engineering, United Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641020, India
Dinesh Babu Sivasamy Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Seattle, 4726 Calhoun Rd Houston TX 77204-4006, USA
Email to Corresponding Author


The use of water-in-diesel (W/D) emulsion fuel has the potential to promote better performance with lower emissions in existing diesel engines. The present study aims to analyzes the influence of operating parameters on the overall engine performance and emission characteristics using W/D emulsion fuel and to obtain the optimum level for favorable performance and emission levels. The engine operating parameters were optimized using a Taguchi–grey relation based multi-response optimization tool. Two controlling parameters, namely compression ratio (CR) and percentage of W/D, were considered as input process parameters. An L16 orthogonal array was used to collect the output responses (performance and emissions) under varying engine load conditions. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and grey relational analysis were used to analyze the performance and emission parameters. From the results obtained, it is noted that both controlling parameters have a significant effect on the performance and emission levels. The optimum level of performance and emission levels are obtained at a CR of 18 and water concentration of 10%. Moreover, under these optimum conditions, i.e. at 10% of water concentration, the fuel properties are at par with the standard diesel fuel properties requirement.     

Emulsion fuel properties; Grey relational analysis; Optimization; Taguchi method; Water-in-diesel emulsion


In order to analyze the effect of the operating parameters of a diesel engine running on W/D emulsion fuel and to obtain the optimum levels, the Taguchi–grey relation based multi-response optimization tool has been applied and the results presented. Based on the results, it can be concluded that CR and the concentration of water have a significant effect on the performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. The optimal parametric settings to provide better performance and emission characteristics are predicted as CR 18 and 10% water concentration in diesel for all loading conditions. Further, the measured physico-chemical properties of 10% W/D emulsion fuel meet the EN 590:2009 fuel standard and thus can be used directly in existing diesel engines. 


Abu-Zaid, M., 2004. Performance of Single Cylinder, Direct Injection Diesel Engine using Water Fuel Emulsion. Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 45, pp. 697–705

Alahmer, A., 2013. Influence of using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Diesel Engine. Energy Conversation and Management, Volume 73, pp. 361–369

Aydin, H., Bayram, A., Esme, U., Guven, O., 2010. Application of Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) and Taguchi Method for the Parametric Optimization of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process. Materials and Technology, Volume 44, pp. 205–211

Ghojel, J., Honnery, D., Al-Khaleefi, K., 2006. Performance, Emissions and Heat Release Characteristics of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Operating on Diesel Oil Emulsion. Applied Thermal Engineering. Volume 26, pp. 2132–2141

Lin, C.-Y., Chen, L.-W., 2008. Comparison of Fuel Properties and Emission Characteristics of Two- and Three-Phase Emulsions Prepared by Ultrasonically Vibrating and Mechanically Homogenizing Emulsification Methods. Fuel, Volume 87, pp. 2154–2161

Morozumi, Y., Saito, Y., 2010. Effect of Physical Properties on Micro Explosion Occurrence in Water-in-Oil Emulsion Droplets. Energy Fuels, Volume 24, pp. 1854–1859

Selim, M., Ghannam, M., 2007. Performance and Engine Roughness of a Diesel Engine Running on Stabilized Water Diesel Emulsion. SAE Technical Paper 2007-24-0132

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran K.S., 2015. Combustion and Performance Characteristics of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 37, pp. 2020­–2028

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., 2016a. Influence of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel and Compression Ratio on Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine. Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering, Volume 3, pp. 238–253

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., 2016b. Taguchi-Grey Relational Based Multi-response Optimization of Water-in-Diesel Emulsification Process. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Volume 30(3), pp. 1399–1404

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., 2016c. Zinc Oxide Incorporated Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel – Formulation, Particle Size Measurement and Emission Characteristics Assessment. Petroleum Science and Technology, Volume 34(2), pp. 114–122

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., 2017. Multi-Response Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Running with Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel, Thermal Science, Volume 21(1B), pp. 427–439

Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., Varun, B., Vijayakumar, S., 2014. Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine using Water-in-Diesel Emulsified Fuel and its CFD Analysis. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, Volume 9, pp. 2739–2749

Yang, W.M., An, H., Chou, S.K., 2013. Impact of Emulsion Fuel with Nano-organic Additives on the Performance of Diesel Engine. Applied Energy, Volume 112, pp. 1206–1212