• Vol 9, No 2 (2018)
  • Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering

Emission and Performance Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends in a Single Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Nur Hamzah Said, F.N. Ani, Mohd Farid Muhamad Said

Cite this article as:

Said, N.H., Ani, F.N., Said, M.F.M., 2018. Emission and Performance Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends in a Single Direct Injection Diesel Engine. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(2), pp. 238-245

Nur Hamzah Said Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
F.N. Ani Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor DT , Malaysia
Mohd Farid Muhamad Said Automotive Development Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 Johor, Malaysia
Email to Corresponding Author


The use of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) as feedstock, and microwave heating technology are favored to reduce the cost of biodiesel. In order to identify the effect of using biodiesel from WCO Methyl Ester (WCOME) blends on diesel engine emissions and performance, WCOME blends were tested in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine at a constant speed of 2500 rpm and with five loads. For comparison, commercial diesel fuel, Petron Diesel Max (PDM), and biodiesel mixture from palm oil (POME) were also used. The performance and emission test results of the five test fuels: PDM, BP10, BP20, BW10, and BW20 were then compared with simulation results created by using GT-Power software. The experimental results indicated that using POME and WCOME blends led to increments in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of up to 5.9% and reduction in Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of up to 29.3% compare to PDM. These biodiesel blends also increased nitrogen oxide emissions and decreased carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for all engine loads at a constant speed of 2500 rpm. The experimental testing of the cylinder peak pressure demonstrates significant increase with the increase of engine load for the four test fuels. All the simulation graphs show similar trends.

Biodiesel; Diesel engine; Emission; Performance; Waste cooking oil


Human population growth and economic development are increasing the need for energy. Most energy demand is fulfilled by conventional energy sources such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. However, limited reserves of fossil materials and environmental considerations are leading researchers to look for alternative energy sources. Biodiesel is a viable alternative fuel for use in compression ignition engines because of its non-toxicity, biodegradability, and renewability.

The use of neat vegetable cooking oils and production processes are factors that affect the cost of biodiesel (Ani et al., 1990). WCO as biodiesel feedstock has been used to reduce the cost of biodiesel. Various authors have investigated the use of WCOME in combination with diesel fuel in diesel engines by blending it with biodiesel. They have assessed the effect of using such combinations on the performance, emissions, injection characteristics, and combustion characteristics of diesel engines.

Some researchers have tested WCO and its blends as fuel in diesel engines (Ozsezen et al., 2009; Abu-Jrai et al., 2011; Kalam et al., 2011; Kumar & Jaikumar, 2014), while some have also used WCOME and its blends (Rao et al., 2008; Muralidharan & Vasudevan, 2011; An et al., 2013; Can, 2014; Kathirvel et al., 2016;). Generally, these WCO and WCOME products were blended with commercial diesel fuel. WCO from palm oil can replace diesel fuel for short-term engine running (Kalam et al., 2011). The application of WCOME to diesel engines can reduce operating fuel costs because of the lower price of WCO as the fuel raw material (Motasemi & Ani, 2011; Muralidharan & Vasudevan, 2011; Said et al., 2015).

Ozsezen and Canakci (2011) reported when an engine test was fuelled with Waste (frying) Palm Oil Methyl Ester (WPOME) or Canola Oil Methyl Ester (COME), and not with fuel based on diesel oil (PBDF), the BTE reduced, while the BSFC increased. The methyl esters contained led to a reduction in Carbon Monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and smoke opacities. However, these methyl esters increased Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

In the present study, the performance, emission, and combustion of a one-cylinder (DI) diesel engine were evaluated using the commercial diesel fuel, PDM, two blends of PDM with POME and two blends of PDM with WCOME. Performance parameters such as BTE, BSFC and exhaust gas emissions were studied at all loads and at constant speed. Combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure and net heat release were also investigated.

Experimental Methods

A schematic diagram of the engine test bed is shown in Figure 1. An experiment to examine performance was carried out using a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine without modi?cation for WCOME and POME blends as fuel. The main engine specifications are presented in Table 1. 

The experimental testing was carried out in the Automotive Laboratory of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for a variety of diesel fuels: PDM, and the test fuels BP10, BP20, BW10, and BW20. The major properties of these fuels were tested in the Laboratory Centre, UTM, for the diesel and blends listed in Table 2.

Fuel consumption was measured by determining the time taken by the diesel engine to consume a certain amount of fuel. The engine’s RPM was also monitored by using a tachometer. The engine was coupled to an eddy current dynamometer and temperature was measured using a thermocouple. A pressure transducer was placed inside the cylinder head to measure the pressure inside the cylinder.

A card for the computer-based data-acquisition system SPECTRUM (MI.3112CA) was installed on a DEWE-5000 portable data-acquisition system to collect and analyze the results. A TELEGAN emission analyzer was used to measure exhaust gas emissions. All tests were carried out with PDM fuel in order to provide baseline data and then the fuel was switched to BP10, BP20, BW10, and BW20 fuels. 


The WCOME and POME fuel blends were successfully investigated in single-cylinder diesel engines without modification. The maximum of BTE for all load is obtained in the use of PDM as fuel, then BP10, BP20 and BW10. While the minimum BSFC for all load is obtained in the use of PDM as fuel, then BP10, BP20, BW10 and BW20.

In comparison to PDM the biodiesel blends tend to reduce the CO, CO2, and HC emissions for all loads. There is no NOx increase with the use of biodiesel blends. The peak cylinder pressure increases with increasing load. The peak cylinder pressures for BP10, BP20, and BW10 are lower than PDM for all loads.


The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, and Research University Grant, UTM, Vot 4L653, for their financial support, and to the Research Management Centre, UTM, for their management support. The first author would also like to thank the Governor of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, for the scholarship awarded to him for the continuation of his education at UTM.


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