• Vol 9, No 1 (2018)
  • Chemical Engineering

Development and Characterization of a Composite Anthill-chicken Eggshell Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil

Adeyinka S. Yusuff, Olalekan D. Adeniyi, Moses A. Olutoye, Uduak G. Akpan


Cite this article as:
Yusuff, A.S., Adeniyi, O.D., Olutoye, M.A., Akpan, U.G., 2018. Development and Characterization of a Composite Anthill-chicken Eggshell Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil. International Journal of Technology. Volume 9(1), pp. 110-119
144
Downloads
Adeyinka S. Yusuff Afe Babalola University, Federal University of Technology Minna
Olalekan D. Adeniyi Federal University of Technology Minna
Moses A. Olutoye Federal University of Technology Minna
Uduak G. Akpan Federal University of Technology Minna
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
image

The primary aim of this research is to synthesis composite anthill-chicken eggshell catalyst, which is characterized and employed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste frying oil. The as-synthesized catalyst was characterized using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Basicity. The influence of different reaction parameters on the catalytic reaction, reaction time, catalyst loading and reaction temperature in the range of 50–75°C were studied at fixed methanol/oil ratio of 6:1. The experimental data obtained showed that at reaction time of 2 h, catalyst loading of 5 wt% and reaction temperature of 60°C, the biodiesel yield was 70%. The synthesized catalyst was found to convert low-grade oil into biodiesel via a single-step transesterification process, and its activity has the potential for improvement.

Anthill; Biodiesel; Chicken eggshell; Transesterification; Waste frying oil

Conclusion

This study revealed that CAE eggshell is a good heterogeneous catalyst for the transesteri?cation of WFO. The thermal treatment of the catalyst at 1,000°C for 4 h resulted in an increase in surface area, leading to better catalytic activity for the formation of methyl esters. Under the optimum conditions of a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, addition of 5 wt% of CAE catalyst, and 60°C reaction temperature, the biodiesel yield was 70% at 2 h. This highly ef?cient and low-cost waste catalyst could make the process of biodiesel production from WFOs economically viable and fully ecofriendly, such that it would be competitive with petroleum diesel. The experimental results showed that the biodiesel produced in the present work has some fuel properties that are relatively close to those of mineral diesel and comparable to those of the ASTM biodiesel standards, while a few of its properties are not. Therefore, the catalyst may require modification with promoters, two-step transesterification due to the high free fatty acid content in WFO, and testing with various types of oils.

References

Buasri, A., Chaikwan, T., Loryuenyong, V., Rodklum, C., Chaikwan, T., Kumphan, N., 2012. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst. Applied Science, Volume 2, pp. 641–653

Chorkendorff, I., Niemantsverdriet, J.W., 2003. Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics: Weinhem. Germany: Wiley-VCH press

Di Serio, M., Dimiccoli, M., Cammarota, F., Nastasi, M., Santacesaria, E., 2005. Synthesis of Biodiesel via Homogeneous Lewis Acid Catalyst. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, Volume 239(1), pp. 111–115

Eletta, O.A.A., Ajayi, O.A., Ogunleye, O.O., Akpan, I.C., 2016. Adsorption of Cyanide from Aqueous Solution using Calcinated Eggshells: Equilibrium and Optimization Studies. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 4, pp. 1367–1375

Henne, G.A., 2009. Anthill as a Resource for Ceramics. Published PhD thesis, Faculty of fine art, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Lakhya, J.K., Singh, C., Jutika, B., Rupam, K., Dhanapati, D., 2012. Biochar Supported CaO as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, Volume 1(7), pp. 186–195

Leofanti, G., Tozzola, G., Padovan, M., Petrini, G., Bordiga, S., Zecchina, A., 1997. Catalyst Characterization: Characterization Techniques. Catalysis Today, Volume 34, pp. 307–327

Leung, D.Y.C., Wu, X., Leung, M.K.H., 2010. A Review on Biodiesel Production using Catalysed Transesterification. Applied Energy, Volume 87, pp. 1083–1095

Obadiah, A., Swaroopa, G.A., Kumar, S.V., Jeganathan, K.R., Ramasubbu, A., 2012. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil using Calcined Waste Animal Bone as Catalyst. Bioresource Technology, Volume 116, pp. 512–516

Olutoye, M.A., Hameed, B.H., 2013. A Highly Active Clay-based Catalyst for the Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Waste Cooking Palm Oil. Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 450, pp. 57–62

Olutoye, M.A., Wong, S.W., Chin, L.H., Asif, M., Hameed, B.H. 2016. Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters via Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil by Methanol with a Barium-modified Montmorillonite K10 catalyst. Renewable Energy, Volume 86, pp. 392–398

Oyerinde, A.Y., Bello, E.I., 2016. Use of Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for Analysis of Functional Groups in Peanut Oil Biodiesel and its Blends. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Volume 13(3), pp. 1–14

Roschat, W., Kacha, M., Yoosuk, B., Sudyoaduk, T., Promarak, V., 2012. Biodiesel Production based on Heterogeneous Process Catalyzed by Solid Waste Coral Fragment. Fuel, Volume 2, pp. 194–202

Shah, B., Sulaimana, S., Jamal, P., Alam, M.Z., 2014. Production of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Synthesis. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5(2), pp. 73–75

Sharma, Y.C., Singh, B., Korstad, J., 2010. Application of an Efficient Nonconventional Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis from Pongamia pinnata oil. Energy Fuels, Volume 24, pp. 3223–3231

Siatis, N.G., Kimbaris, A.C., Pappas, C.S., Tarantitlis, P.A., Polissiou, M.G., 2006. Improvement of Biodiesel Production based on the Application of Ultrasound: Monitoring of the Procedure by FTIR Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Volume 83(1), pp. 1–7

Tan, Y.H., Abdullah, M.O., Hipolito, C.N., Taufiq-Yap., Y.H., 2015. Waste Ostrich and Chicken-Eggshells as Heterogeneous Base Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oil: Catalyst Characterization and Biodiesel Yield Performance. Applied Energy, Volume 2, pp. 1–13

Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Abdullah, N.F., Basri, M., 2011. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil using NaOH/Al2O3 Catalysts. Sains Malaysiana, Volume 40(6), pp. 587594

Tsai, W.T., Yang, J.M., Lai, C.W., Cheng, Y.H., Lin, C.C., Yeh, C.W., 2006. Characterization and Adsorption Properties of Eggshells and Eggshell Membrane. Bioresource Technology, Volume 121, pp. 167173

Wei, Z., Xu, C., Li, B., 2009. Application of Waste Eggshell as Low-cost Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Bioresource Technology, Volume 100, pp. 2883–2885

Yadav, P.K.S., Singh, O., Singh, R.P., 2010. Performance Test of Palm Fatty Acid Biodiesel on Ccompression Ignition Engine. Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels, Volume 1(1), pp. 1–9