**Publish at : ** 27 Apr 2018

**IJtech :** IJtech
Vol 9, No 2 (2018)

**DOI :** https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v9i2.1040

Nasruddin, Nasution, S., Aisyah, N., Surachman, A., Wibowo, A.S., 2018. Exergy Analysis and Exergoeconomic Optimization of a Binary Cycle System using a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm. *International Journal of Technology*. Volume 9(2), pp. 275-286

133

Nasruddin | Universitas Indonesia |

Syaiful Nasution | Universitas Indonesia |

Nyayu Aisyah | Universitas Indonesia |

Arief Surachman | Universitas Indonesia |

Agung Satrio Wibowo | Universitas Indonesia |

Abstract

The increasing demand for energy and the current environmental issues are motivating experts to develop appropriate technology to face both problems. The binary cycle system is a highly effective generating technology which can be applied in the utilization of small-scale geothermal energy by using a working fluid that has a lower boiling point than water. In this paper, a geothermal power plant binary cycle system model was tested by using waste brine at a temperature of 180^{o}C at well pad 4 of the Dieng geothermal power plant. In the optimization procedure, total exergy destruction and total annual cost are chosen as the objective functions. Optimization is made by using a multi objective genetic algorithm. Based on the simulation, it is known that the exergy efficiency and economic value of the optimal binary cycle of the geothermal power plant system has optimum conditions at an evaporation temperature of 163.3^{o}C, a brine temperature in the preheater outlet of 130^{o}C, and a water cooling temperature at condenser outlet of 35.4^{o}C. The working fluid pressure at pump outlet is 3859 kPa with the composition of the working fluid mixture being 86% R601 and 14% R744, resulting in turbine power of 119.8 kW, total exergy destruction of 742.4 kW, and a total annual cost of 36,723 US dollars. These results indicate that, by setting the above operating conditions, the system can achieve optimum efficiency, as indicated by the minimum values of both exergy destruction and total annual cost.

Binary cycle system; Cost; Exergy destruction; Exergy efficiency; Genetic algorithm

Introduction

The world is currently experiencing environmental problems, especially climate change caused of global warming. One of this is the occurrence of the greenhouse effect from the carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) emissions generated by uncontrolled use of fossil fuels. The rapid development of industry today results in higher energy consumption. To overcome this problem, various resources of large potential renewable energies have been used and still being developed in Indonesia such as solar energy and geothermal. The application of solar energy for absorption and adsorption cooling systems have been developed at Universitas Indonesia (Lubis et al. 2018 and Nasruddin et al. 2015). Meanwhile, it is estimated that 40% of world geothermal energy reserves exist in Indonesia. Compared to the total potential that exists, geothermal energy utilization in Indonesia is still very low, at 1.4 GW or only 4.5% of the existing potential (Nasruddin et al., 2016a). The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a power plant system that uses organic fluids. It is estimated that there will be around 10% additional power in the power generation in the main ORC system (Prasetyo et al., 2010).

Study of the selection of the best working fluids for thermal systems has been conducted by Budisulistyo and Krumdieck. They investigated a pre-FS design of binary cycles with three types of working fluid, n-pentane, R245fa and R134a. Their results showed that the use of n-pentane resulted in greater output power and thermal efficiency compared to use of the other working fluids (Budisulistyo & Krumdieck, 2015).

Systems with pure working fluids have a limitation on isothermal boiling, which causes poor heating between working fluids and heat sources on pinch points, that producing major irreversibility (Chen et al., 2011). Therefore, the use of mixed working fluids can be solution to this problem (Chen et al., 2006). Wu et al. (2017) conducted a study by performing thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of geothermal power plant using six types of working fluids, with each mixed with CO_{2}. Their results showed that the mixture of R161 with CO_{2} was the best working fluid in terms of thermal efficiency and cost. The selected CO_{2}-based mixture can reduce the cost per kWh even though larger areas of heat acquisition are required. With regard to refrigeration system, Nasruddin et al. (2016b) successfully conducted optimization scenario of a cascade refrigeration system by using refrigerant C_{3}H_{8} in high temperature circuits and a mixture of C_{2}H_{6}/CO_{2} in low temperature circuits. Garg et al. (2013) evaluated the CO_{2} mixture with isopentane and propane in an ORC system by utilizing solar energy. The results showed an increase of pressure and a larger temperature glide, which the mixture of isopentane with CO_{2} had greater irreversibility compared to the propane mixture with CO_{2}._{ }Dai et al. (2014) performed thermodynamic analysis by mixing CO_{2} with seven types of working fluids. The simulation results showed that the R1234yf / CO_{2} mixture was suitable for large capacity transcritical power cycles due to its lower burnability and increased thermal and exergy efficiency compared to pure CO_{2}.

The purpose of this study is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of Dieng geothermal power plant and its decrease the environmental effect such as global warming by also considering the cost of the binary cycle system. Therefore, the paper presents an exergy analysis of the system by using an environmentally friendly working fluid, an R601 and R744 mixture. This mixture is selected because R601 is a natural working fluid that has a high critical temperature up to 196^{o}C, non-toxic and does not damage the atmospheric layer or contribute to global warming. However, since R601 belongs to the flammable hydrocarbon group, R744 is added with the aim of reducing the flammable properties of R601. The originality of this work is the attempt to achieve the optimum operating conditions of the binary cycle system by using a multi-objective optimization study based on exergy and the economic point of view. This optimization scenario is based on a code developed in Matlab software which is also integrated with REFPROP software. As a result, a balance between system performance and the total cost of the system can be achieved and optimum system conditions obtained.

Conclusion

The study has presented a thermodynamic analysis of the binary cycle system based on modeling and multi-objective optimization. With the help of multi-objective optimization, exergy destruction and total annual cost have been minimized. The decision making method was also used to find the optimal point among a set of Pareto fronts. Based on the optimization scenario, the system has optimum condition at an evaporation temperature of 163.3^{o}C, a brine temperature outlet the pre heater of 130^{o}C, a cooling water temperature outlet the condenser of 35.4^{o}C, while the pumping fluid outflow is about 3859 kPa with a working fluid mixture of 86% R601 and 14% R744 which has total exergy destruction of 742.4 kW and a total annual cost of about 36,723 US dollars.

Acknowledgement

The authors gratefully acknowledge DRPM Universitas Indonesia for
supporting this research with a PITTA Research Grant 2017 No:
817/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017.

References

Bejan, A., 1989. Theory of Heat Transfer-irreversible Refrigeration Plants. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer. Volume 32(9), pp. 1631–1639

Budisulistyo, D., Krumdieck, S., 2015. Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis for the Pre-Feasibility Study of a Binary Geothermal Power Plant. Energy, Volume 103, pp. 639–649

Chen, H., Goswami, D.Y., Rahman, M.M, Stefanakos, E.K., 2011. A Supercritical Rankine Cycle using Zeotropic Mixture Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-grade Heat into Power. Energy, Volume 36(1), pp. 549–555

Chen, Y., Lundqvist, P., Johansson, A., Platell, P., 2006. A Comparative Study of the Carbon Dioxide Transcritical Power Cycle Compared with an Organic Rankine Cycle with R123 as Working Fluid in Waste Heat Recovery. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 26(17-18), pp. 2142–2147

Dai, B., Li, M., Ma, Y., 2014. Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Blends with Low GWP (Gloal Warming Potential) Working Fluid-based Transcritical Rankine Cycle for Low-grade Heat Energy Recovery. Energy, Volume 64(1), pp. 942–952

DiPippo, R., 2007. Ideal Thermal Efficiency for Geothermal Binary Plants. Geothermics, Volume 36(3), pp. 276–285

Garg, P., Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P., 2013. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Blends with Isopentane and Propane as Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 52(2), pp. 439–448

Kondo, S., Takizawa, K., Takahashi, A., Tokuhashi, K., 2006. Extended Le Chatelier’s Formula for Carbon Dioxide Dilution Effect on Flammability Limits. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 138, pp. 1–8

Longo, G.A., Mancin, S., Righetti, G., Zilio, C., 2015. A New Model for Refrigerant Boiling Inside Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs). International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 91, pp. 144–149

Lubis, A., Jeong, J., Giannetti, N.Yamaguchi, S., Saito, K., Yabase, H., Alhamid, M.I., Nasruddin, 2018. Operation performance enhancement of single-double-effect absorption chiller, Applied Energy, Volume 219, pp. 299-311

Nasruddin, Lemington, Alhamid, M.I., 2015, Numerical simulation of a two-bed solar-driven adsorption chiller in a tropical climate, International Journal of Technology, Volume 6, pp. 594-603

Nasruddin, Alhamid, M.I., Daud, Y., Surachman, A., Sugiono, A., Aditya, H.B., Mahlia, T.M.I., 2016a. Potential of Geothermal Energy for Electricity Generation in Indonesia: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 53, pp. 733–740

Nasruddin, Sholahudin, S., Giannetti, N., Arnas, 2016b. Optimization of a Cascade Refrigeration System using Refrigerant C3H8 in High Temperature Circuits and a Mixture of C2H6/CO2 in Low Temperature Circuits. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 104, pp. 96–103

NIST Standard Reference Database 23 Version 9.1, 2013. NIST Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Mixtures. REFPROP

Pambudi, N.A., Itoi, R., Jalilinasrabady, S., Jaelani, K., 2014 Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Dieng Single-flash Geothermal Power Plant. Energy Resources Engineering, Volume 78, pp. 405–411

Prasetyo, B.T., Himawan, Suyanto, Surana, T., Agustina, L., Yasser, R., 2010. Design and Testing of n-Pentane Turbine for 2 kW Model of Binary Cycle Power Plant. In: Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia

Sachdeva, R., 2006. Fundamental of Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer (SI Unit). New Age International Publisher

Taylor, L.J., 2015. Development of Low-Temperature Geothermal Organic Rankine Cycle Standard. Master Thesis, University of Canterbury

Wu, C., Wang, S., Jiang, X., Li, J., 2017. Thermodynamic Analysis and Performance Optimization of Transcritical Power Cycles Using CO2-based Binary Zeotropic Mixtures as Working Fluids for Geothermal Power Plants. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 115, pp. 292–304