• Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
  • Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering

Simulation of River Discharges in Major Watersheds of Northwestern Java From 1901 To 2006

Miga M. Julian, Fumihiko Nishio, Poerbandono , Philip J. Ward

Publish at : 01 Jan 2011 - 00:00
IJtech : IJtech Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v2i1.1017

Cite this article as:
Julian, M.M.., & Nishio, F..Poerbandono., & Ward, P.J.. 2017. Simulation of River Discharges in Major Watersheds of Northwestern Java From 1901 To 2006. International Journal of Technology. Volume 2(1), pp.37-46
Miga M. Julian Study Program of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Fumihiko Nishio Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan
Poerbandono Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technology 40132, Bandung, Indonesia
Philip J. Ward Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HVAmsterdam, The Netherlands
Email to Corresponding Author


This study is intended to simulate the river discharges in major watersheds of northwestern Java, Indonesia. The five largest watersheds are considered: Ciujung, Cisadane, Ciliwung, Citarum, and Cimanuk. The simulation period covers the 20th century and early 21st century, from January 1901 to June 2006, at a monthly time step. Discharge simulation was carried out using STREAM (Spatial Tools for River Basins and Environmental and Analysis of Management Option). The input data for the simulation are climate (precipitation and temperature), land cover and topographic data. Setup and analysis of input data are also part of this study. The Mann-Kendall test and linear regression were used to detect trends. Temperature datasets show statistically significant increasing trends for all periods and areas. Significant increasing trends of precipitation occurred in the latest 16-year period (1990-2006) in hilly and middle areas. A positive trend of simulated discharge is seen in all watersheds and periods. They are only significant for Ciujung (periods of 1950-2006 and 1975-2006), Cisadane (periods of 1950-2006 and 1990-2006), and Ciliwung (periods of 1950-2006, 1975-2006, and 1990- 2006). The most noteworthy trend is seen in the 1990-2006 period. Over the course of the 20th and early decade of the 21st century, monthly discharges have increased by 3% to 9%.

Climate, Discharge, Land cover, Simulation


Aerts, J. C. J. H., Kriek, M., Schepel, M., 1999. STREAM, Spatial Tools for River Basins and Environment and Analysis of Management Options: ‘Set Up and Requirements’, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B, 24(6), 591-595.

Julian, M. M., Poerbandono, Ward, P. J., 2009a. Simulation of the Latest Century’s Discharges of Major Rivers of North-western Java to the Java Sea, Indonesia. In: Proceedings of International Seminar on Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Coastal Management in Developing Countries, 4-6 May 2009, Manado, Indonesia.

Julian, M.M., Poerbandono, Ward, P.J., 2009b. The Role of Precipitation, Temperature, and Land Cover in Controlling Run-off of the Northwest of Java Coastal Zones: A Climate Change Perspective. In: International Symposium: Effect of Climate Change on Coastal Management, 18-20 May 2009, Bandung, Indonesia.

Kwadijk, J.C.J., 1993. The Impact of Climate Change on the Discharge of the River Rhine, Ph.D. thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, p. 201.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC), 2001. Available online at: from ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [Accessed November 5, 2010].

Poerbandono, R., Ward, P.J., Julian, M.M., 2009a. Set Up and Calibration of a Spatial Tool for Simulating River Discharge of Western Java in Recent Decades: Preliminary Results and Assessments, ITB Journal on Engineering Science, Volume 41, No. 1, 50-64.

Poerbandono, Ward, P.J., Julian, M.M., Harto, A.B., 2009b. Spatial Simulation of Watershed Response Across Jakarta to the Prevailing Rainfall Climate According to Effective Enforcement of Perpres 54/2008. In: International Conference on Regional Development, Environment and Infrastructures "Trend, Issues and Challenges Confronting Regional Development, Infrastructure and Environment in Developing Countries", 18-19 June 2009, Bandung, Indonesia.

Poerbandono, Ward, P.J., Prijatna, K., Riqqi, A., Julian, M.M., 2009c. Spatio-temporal Assessment of Climate, Land Use and Water Balance using Spatial Tools. Case Study: West of Java, Indonesia. In: Proceedings of The 10th South East Asian Survey Congress, p. 317-325, 4-7 August 2009, Denpasar, Indonesia.

Thornthwaite, C.W., & Mather, J.R., 1957. Instructions and Tables for Computing Potential Evapotranspiration and the Water Balance, Publications in Climatology, 10(3), 183-243.

University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit (CRU), 2008. CRU Datasets, British Atmospheric Data Centre, Available at: .

Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R.E., Afiff, S.A., 1996. The Ecology of Java and Bali, Periplus Editions, Dalhousie University.

Xiong, L., & Guo, S., 2004. Trend Test and Change-point Detection for the Annual Discharge Series of the Yangtze River at the Yichang Hydrological Station, Hydrological Science Journal, 49(1), 99-112.