Vol 7, No 3 (2016) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Kinetics of Strain Aging Behavior of API 5L X65 and API 5L B Steel Types on Long-Term Operations

Akhmad Ardian Korda, Rizky Hidayat, Setiadi Suriana



The kinetics of strain
aging behavior of API 5L X65 and API 5L B steel types on long-term operations
were studied. Pre-strain was applied to the two steel types and the process was
continued with the aging process at various temperatures and over various time
periods. Mechanical properties data were used to determine activation energy
levels. The results showed that API 5L B steel has a lower activation energy
level than API 5L X65 steel through the identification of yield strength value,
which is 13.7 kJ compared to 24.87 kJ, which means that API 5L B steel is more
susceptible to strain aging than API 5L X65 steel. Predictions of long-term
mechanical properties which are verified through tensile testing showed that
the appropriate parameters to observe and predict the strain-aging behavior are
implemented by evaluating the changes in yield strength, which gives the
minimum value for the average margin of error for API 5L X65 steel and API 5L B
steel, i.e. 0.3% and 0.45%, respectively. On the other hand, prediction value
parameters, such as elongation, toughness and the Vickers hardness have an
average margin of error range between 2.6 to 5.06%.

Keywords: Kinetics; Long-term operation; Pipeline steels; Pre-strain; Strain-aging

Full PDF Download


Baron, A.A., 2012. The Generalized Diagram of Fracture Toughness for Pipeline Steels. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Volume 98, pp. 26–29

G̈und̈uz, S., 2008. Static Strain Ageing Behaviour of Dual Phase Steels. Materials Science and Engineering A., Volume 486(1–2), pp. 63–71

Hämmerle, J.R, de Almeida, L.H., Monteiro, S.N, 2004. Lower Temperatures Mechanism of Strain Aging in Carbon Steels for Drawn Wires. Scripta Materialia, Volume 50(10), pp. 1289–1292

Kemp, I.P., Pollard, G., Bramley, A.N., 1990. Static Strain Aging in High Carbon Steel Wire. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 6(4), pp. 331–336

Kotrechko, S.O., Krasowsky, A.J., Meshkov Yu.Ya., Torop, V.M., 2004. Effect of Long-Term Service on the Tensile Properties and Capability of Pipeline Steel 17GS to Resist Cleavage Fracture. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Volume 81, p. 337–344

Palosaari, M., Manninen, T., 2012. Bake-hardening of Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steels. Steel Research International, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, pp. 951–954

Richards, M.D., Drexler, E.S., Fekete, J.R., 2011. Aging-induced Anisotropy of Mechanical Properties in Steel Products: Implications for the Measurement of Engineering Properties. Materials Science and Engineering A., Volume 529, pp. 184–191

Richards, M.D., Van Tyne, C.J., Matlock, D.K., 2011, The Influence of Dynamic Strain Aging on Resistance to Strain Reversal as Assessed through the Bauschinger Effect. Materials Science and Engineering A., Volume 528(27), pp. 7926–7932