Vol 6, No 4 (2015) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Synthesis of Lithium Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) through Hydrothermal Process by using Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Xerogel

Bambang Priyono, Anne Zulfia Syahrial, Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Evvy Kartini, Mario Marfelly, Wahid Muhamad Furkon Rahmatulloh



Lithium Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) or (LTO) has a potential as an anode material for a high performance
lithium ion battery. In this work, LTO was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Titanium
Dioxide (TiO2) xerogel prepared
by a sol-gel method and Lithium
Hydroxide (LiOH). The sol-gel process was used to synthesize TiO2 xerogel
from a titanium tetra-n-butoxide/Ti(OC4H9)4 precursor. An anatase polymorph was obtained by calcining the TiO2
xerogel at a low temperature, i.e.: 300oC
and then the hydrothermal reaction was undertaken with 5M LiOH
aqueous solution in a hydrothermal process at 135oC
for 15 hours to form Li4Ti5O12. The sintering process was conducted at a temperature range varying from 550oC,
650oC, and 750oC,
respectively to determine the optimum characteristics
of Li4Ti5O12. The characterization was based
on Scanning Thermal Analysis (STA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD),
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) testing results. The highest intensity of XRD
peaks and FTIR spectra of the LTO were found at
the highest sintering temperature (750oC). As a trade-off, however,
the obtained LTO/Li4Ti5O12
possesses the smallest BET surface area (< 0.001 m2/g) with the
highest crystallite size (56.45 nm).

Keywords: Anode material; Hydrothermal; Li4Ti5O12; Li-ion battery; Sintering; Sol-gel; TiO2 xerogel

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