Vol 7, No 6 (2016) > Chemical Engineering >

Effects of the Duration of Ultrasonic Irradiation and the Atmospheric Environment on the Characteristics of ZnO Nanostructures via a Sonochemical Method

W. Widiyastuti, Siti Machmudah, Tantular Nurtono, Sugeng Winardi


Abstract: Nanostructured zinc
oxide (ZnO) was synthesized via a sonochemical method. The effect of the
duration of ultrasonic irradiation in a continuous mode on the generated
particles was investigated. Additionally, the effect of flowing either air or
nitrogen during the sonication process was investigated. Zinc nitrate and
ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition
of other surfactants. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite
structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed with a crystalline size that increased
as the ultrasound irradiation time increased. The morphology of the generated
ZnO particles could be changed from flowerlike to needlelike structures via
continuous ultrasound irradiation over one to two hours, resulting in increases
in the particle lengths and decreases in the particle diameters from 200 to 80
nm. Photoluminescence intensity was also increased with increases in the ultrasonic
irradiation times. Photoluminescence spectra were also influenced by the
atmospheric environment. Two bands centered at 390 and 500 nm were generated
under a nitrogen environment. On the other hand, a single wide band with a peak
at around 430 nm was found for particles generated under an air environment. It
can be applied for light emitting diodes (LED) or laser fabrication with a
controlled emitting band.
Keywords: Chemical synthesis; Luminescence; Nanostructures; Oxides; Sonochemistry

Full PDF Download


Choi, M.J., McBean, K.E., Ng, P.H.R., McDonagh, A.M., Maynard, P.J., Lennard, C., Roux, C., 2008. An Evaluation of Nanostructured Zinc Oxide as a Fluorescent Powder for Fingerprint Detection. Journal of Materials Science, Volume 43(2), pp. 732–737

Coates, J. In: Meyers, R. (Ed.), 2000. Interpretation of Infrared Spectra: A Practical Approach Interpretation of Infrared Spectra. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp. 10815–10837

Fan, J.C., Sreekanth, K.M., Xie, Z., Chang, S.L., Rao, K.V., 2013. p-Type ZnO Materials: Theory, Growth, Properties and Devices. Progress in Materials Science, Volume 58(6), pp. 874–985

Hassan, N.K., Hashim, M.R., Bououdina, M., 2013. One-dimensional ZnO Nanostructure Growth Prepared by Thermal Evaporation on Different Substrates: Ultraviolet Emission as a Function of Size and Dimensionality. Ceramics International, Volume 39(7), pp. 7439–7444

Height, M.J., Mädler, L., Pratsinis, S.E., Krumeich, F., 2006. Nanorods of ZnO Made by Flame Spray Pyrolysis. Chemistry of Materials, Volume 18(4), pp. 572–578

Hidayat, D., Ogi, T., Iskandar, F., Okuyama, K., 2008. Single crystal ZnO: Al Nanoparticles Directly Synthesized Using Low-Pressure Spray Pyrolysis. Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, Volume 151(3), pp. 231–237

Karimipour, M., Kheshabnia, A., Molaei, M., 2016. Red Luminescence of Zn/ZnO Core–shell Nanorods in a Mixture of LTZA/Zinc Acetate Matrix: Study of the Effects of Nitrogen Bubbling, Cobalt Doping and Thioglycolic Acid. Journal of Luminescence, Volume 178, pp. 234–240

Kumar, V., Swart, H.C., Gohain, M., Kumar, V., Som, S., Bezuindenhoudt, B.C.B., Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., 2014. Influence of Ultrasonication Times on the Tunable Colour Emission of ZnO Nanophosphors for Lighting Applications. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Volume 21(4), pp. 1549–1556

Lee, J., Lee, S., Choi, M.G., No, I.J., Ryu, J., Dabra, N., Hundal, J.S., Jeong, D.Y., 2014. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hydrothermally-grown ZnO Nanowires on the Aerosol-deposited AZO Seed Layer. Ceramics International, Volume 40(7), pp. 10693–10698

Look, D.C., 2001. Recent Advances in ZnO Materials and Devices. Materials Science and Engineering B, Volume 80, pp. 383–387

Manickam, S., In: Choi, P.K., Ashokkumar, M. (Eds.), 2011. Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems, Springer, pp. 192–211

Panda, N.R., Acharya, B.S., Nayak, P., 2013. Sonochemical Synthesis of Nitrogen Doped ZnO Nanorods: Effect of Anions on Growth and Optical Properties. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Volume 24, pp. 4043–4049

Pearton, S.J., Norton, D.P., Ip, K., Heo, Y.W., Steiner, T., 2003. Recent Progress in Processing and Properties of ZnO. Superlattices and Microstructures, Volume 34, pp. 3–32

Pearton, S.J., Ren, F., 2014. Advances in ZnO-based Materials for Light Emitting Diodes. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, Volume 3, pp. 51–55

Sahu, D., Acharya, B.S., Bag, B.P., Basanta Singh, T., Gartia, R.K., 2010. Probing the Surface States in Nano ZnO Powder Synthesized by Sonication Method: Photo and Thermo-luminescence Studies. Journal of Luminescence, Volume 130(8), pp. 1371–1378

Thangadurai, P., Zergioti, I., Saranu, S., Chandrinou, C., Yang, Z., Tsoukalas, D., Kean, A., Boukos, N., 2011. ZnO Nanoparticles Produced by Novel Reactive Physical Deposition Process. Applied Surface Science, Volume 257(12), pp. 5366–5369

Widiyastuti, W., Wang, W.N., Purwanto, A., Lenggoro, I.W., and Okuyama, K., 2007. A Pulse Combustion-spray Pyrolysis Process for the Preparation of Nano- and Submicrometer-sized Oxide Particles. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 90, pp. 3779–3785

Xu, C.H., Lui, H.F., Surya, C., 2011. Synthetics of ZnO Nanostructures by Thermal Oxidation in Water Vapor Containing Environments. Materials Letters, Volume 65, pp. 27–30

Zak, A.K., Majid, W.H.A., Wang, H.Z., Yousefi, R., Golsheikh, A.M., Ren, Z.F., 2013. Sonochemical Synthesis of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Volume 20(1), pp. 395–400

Zhang, J., Cong, L., Wan, H., Wang, T., 2009. Green-emission and n-type Conductivity of ZnO: Zn Films Obtained Using Vapor Deposition Method. Applied Surface Science, Volume 255, pp. 3530–3533

Zhou, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, F., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Yang, L., 2006. Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by a Novel Gel-template Combustion Process. Journal of Luminescence, Volume 119, pp. 248–252